Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Constructs of COVID-19 Health Beliefs: A Comparison Between Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Individuals in Taiwan
Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
Department of Psychiatry, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chia-Yi City 60002, Taiwan
Department of Senior Citizen Service Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan
Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
Department of Psychology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
Department of Addiction Science, Kaohsiung Municipal Kai-Syuan Psychiatric Hospital, Kaohsiung 80276, Taiwan
Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, and Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
School of Nursing, The State University of New York, University at Buffalo, New York, NY 14214-3079, USA
Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nai-Ying Ko and Wei-Hsin Lu contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4282; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124282
Received: 17 May 2020 / Revised: 13 June 2020 / Accepted: 13 June 2020 / Published: 15 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research about Risk Perception in the Environmental Health Domain)
This online survey study aimed to compare the cognitive, affective, and behavioral constructs of health beliefs related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals in Taiwan. In total, 533 sexual minority and 1421 heterosexual participants were recruited through a Facebook advertisement. The constructs pertaining to cognition (perceived relative susceptibility to COVID-19, perceived COVID-19 severity, having sufficient knowledge and information on COVID-19, and confidence in coping with COVID-19), affect (worry toward COVID-19), and behavior (adoption of health-protective behaviors) in relation to health beliefs about COVID-19 were compared between sexual minority and heterosexual participants. The results indicated that sexual minority participants had lower perceived susceptibility to COVID-19, greater self-confidence in coping with COVID-19, and lower worry about COVID-19 and were less likely to maintain good indoor ventilation and disinfect their household than heterosexual individuals. Sexual orientation is the modifying factor for the Health Belief Model in the COVID-19 pandemic and should be taken into consideration when medical professionals establish prevention programs for COVID-19.