Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a versatile DNA repair pathway which can be activated in response to a broad spectrum of UV-induced DNA damage, such as bulky adducts, including cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6–4 photoproducts (6–4PPs). Based on the genomic position of the lesion, two sub-pathways can be defined: (I) global genomic NER (GG-NER), involved in the ablation of damage throughout the whole genome regardless of the transcription activity of the damaged DNA locus, and (II) transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER), activated at DNA regions where RNAPII-mediated transcription takes place. These processes are tightly regulated by coordinated mechanisms, including post-translational modifications (PTMs). The fine-tuning modulation of the balance between the proteins, responsible for PTMs, is essential to maintain genome integrity and to prevent tumorigenesis. In this review, apart from the other substantial PTMs (SUMOylation, PARylation) related to NER, we principally focus on reversible ubiquitylation, which involves E3 ubiquitin ligase and deubiquitylase (DUB) enzymes responsible for the spatiotemporally precise regulation of NER.
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