Special Issue "Advances in Geohydrology: Methods and Applications"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental and Sustainable Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Francesco Fiorillo
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, 82100 Benevento, Italy
Interests: Hydrogeology; Karst springs; Hydrology; Landslides; Floods
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The effects of the hydrological cycle on the continental water systems are the main topic of this Special Issue. Analyses will focus on the physical features of the atmosphere (rainfall, air temperature, humidity, wind, etc.) controlling the continental waters, such as rivers, lakes, and groundwater. Data will typically be collected by remote sensing (satellite) or field monitoring (rain gauges, etc.), and the results of the studies will try to explain the water path and its effect on the ground surface and terrains. The study has to be based on well-consolidated or new methods that analytically explain the observed phenomenon (river and spring discharge, groundwater level, any physical and chemical characteristics of water, etc.) within the hydrological cycle. Analyses of hydrological data series and their statistical treatment are welcome.

Prof. Francesco Fiorillo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.ynsqex.icu by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hydrology
  • data series
  • statistics
  • monitoring
  • river
  • lake
  • groundwater
  • aquifer

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Geohydrology of a Reference Mediterranean Catchment (Cilento UNESCO Geopark, Southern Italy)
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4117; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124117 - 15 Jun 2020
Abstract
In this paper, we studied the geo-hydrological structure and behavior of a reference catchment, located in the Cilento UNESCO Global Geopark, southern Italy, representative of the hilly, terrigenous and forested headwaters of the Mediterranean eco-region. Based on detailed hydrogeological and hydro-geomorphological surveys and [...] Read more.
In this paper, we studied the geo-hydrological structure and behavior of a reference catchment, located in the Cilento UNESCO Global Geopark, southern Italy, representative of the hilly, terrigenous and forested headwaters of the Mediterranean eco-region. Based on detailed hydrogeological and hydro-geomorphological surveys and geomorphometric analysis, starting in 2012, a hydro-chemical monitoring activity at the catchment and sub-catchment scale started, and a hydro-chemical dataset was progressively recorded at daily and sub-hourly time steps. Based on this dataset, the authors performed an original procedure to identify different runoff components, derived by applying cascade mass balance filtering. The integration of hydrological and geomorphological approaches allowed us to obtain an interesting conceptualization of the storm flow generation using hydro-chemical signatures related to different runoff components produced during the increasing–decreasing cycle of the flood event magnitude. The hydro-system activated progressively different runoff sources (i.e., groundwater, riparian corridor, hillslope and hollow) and involved various mechanisms (i.e., groundwater ridging, saturation-excess, infiltration-excess and soil pipe exfiltration). The geo-hydrological conceptualization was validated using a hysteresis Q-EC loop analysis performed on selected events that showed how hysteretic indices could be used to characterize the events in respect to their origins, mechanisms and pathways in similar catchments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geohydrology: Methods and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Steady-State Model to Simulate Groundwater Flow in Unconfined Aquifer
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2708; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082708 - 14 Apr 2020
Abstract
The hydraulic and hydrogeological features of the Caposele aquifer have been investigated by using a numerical groundwater flow model. In particular, groundwater flow simulations were performed for a multilayered, unconfined aquifer in steady-state conditions for different thicknesses of the aquifer’s saturated zone. The [...] Read more.
The hydraulic and hydrogeological features of the Caposele aquifer have been investigated by using a numerical groundwater flow model. In particular, groundwater flow simulations were performed for a multilayered, unconfined aquifer in steady-state conditions for different thicknesses of the aquifer’s saturated zone. The Caposele groundwater model was carried out starting from a generic model drained by a unique spring outlet in accordance with the geo-hydrological features of the study area. The conceptual model was built considering hydrogeological features of spring catchment, and was then implemented with the MODFLOW numerical code. A combined 2D-3D approach was adopted, and the model was calibrated on borehole data available for the time period 2012–2019. Different thicknesses of the aquifer were set, and a reliable relationship was found between the hydraulic head, saturated zone and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. Using the MODPATH package, the mean travel time (Darcian) of groundwater was computed for five different scenarios, corresponding to the model’s depths; the analysis that was performed shows that the travel time is higher for a greater and lower for a smaller thickness of the aquifer’s saturated zone, respectively. The Caposele aquifer model was zoned in different sectors, named flow pipe areas, that play different roles in groundwater recharge-discharge processes. A vector analysis was also carried out in order to highlight the ascendant flow near the spring zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geohydrology: Methods and Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Karst Spring Recharge Areas and Discharge Relationship by Oxygen-18 and Deuterium Isotopes Analyses: A Case Study in Southern Latium Region, Italy
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1882; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051882 - 10 Mar 2020
Abstract
Karst aquifer recharge areas are usually difficult to identify because of the complexity of these aquifers’ characteristics. On the other hand, their identification is very important in the aim of protecting the groundwater resources that these aquifers host. Regarding this topic, this paper [...] Read more.
Karst aquifer recharge areas are usually difficult to identify because of the complexity of these aquifers’ characteristics. On the other hand, their identification is very important in the aim of protecting the groundwater resources that these aquifers host. Regarding this topic, this paper presents an approach aimed at identifying karst aquifer recharge areas by the application of oxygen-18 and deuterium isotopes composition of groundwater coupled with hydrological features. Oxygen-18 and deuterium isotope composition of Capodacqua di Spigno Spring, in the South of the Latium Region, has been applied with rainfall and discharge values related to the feeding aquifer of this spring. As δ18O and δ2H values of groundwater samples are natural tracers of the recharge area’s elevation, we propose a model, based on the distribution of the basin surfaces involved as recharge areas, in relation to elevations. The model estimates, for any discharge value, the percentage of the topographic area involved in the aquifer recharge. The setting up of this simulated distribution is supported by a Weibull cumulative probability function. The results show that the measured discharges increase as larger areas with lower elevations are involved in the recharge process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geohydrology: Methods and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Suitability of a Coupled Hydrologic and Hydraulic Model to Simulate Surface Water and Groundwater Hydrology in a Typical North-Eastern Germany Lowland Catchment
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041281 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Lowland river basins are characterised by complex hydrologic and hydraulic interactions between the different subsystems (aerated zone, groundwater, surface water), which may require physically-based dynamically-coupled surface water and groundwater hydrological models to reliably describe these processes. Exemplarily, for a typical north-eastern Germany lowland [...] Read more.
Lowland river basins are characterised by complex hydrologic and hydraulic interactions between the different subsystems (aerated zone, groundwater, surface water), which may require physically-based dynamically-coupled surface water and groundwater hydrological models to reliably describe these processes. Exemplarily, for a typical north-eastern Germany lowland catchment (Tollense river with about 400 km²), an integrated hydrological model, MIKE SHE, coupled with a hydrodynamic model, MIKE 11, was developed and assessed. Hydrological and hydraulic processes were simulated from 2010 to 2018, covering strongly varying meteorological conditions. To achieve a highly reliable model, the calibration was performed in parallel for groundwater levels and river flows at the available monitoring sites in the defined catchment. Based on sensitivity analysis, saturated hydraulic conductivity, leakage coefficients, Manning’s roughness, and boundary conditions (BCs) were used as main calibration parameters. Despite the extreme soil heterogeneity of the glacial terrain, the model performance was quite reasonable in the different sub-catchments with an error of less than 2% for water balance estimation. The resulted water balance showed a strong dependency on land use intensity and meteorological conditions. During relatively dry hydrological years, actual evapotranspiration (ETa) becomes the main water loss component, with an average of 60%–65% of total precipitation and decreases to 55%–60% during comparatively wet hydrological years during the simulation period. Base flow via subsurface and drainage flow accounts for an approximate average of 30%–35% during wet years and rises up to 35%–45% of the total water budget during the dry hydrological years. This means, groundwater is in lowland river systems the decisive compensator of varying meteorological conditions. The coupled hydrologic and hydraulic model is valuable for detailed water balance estimation and seasonal dynamics of groundwater levels and surface water discharges, and, due to its physical foundation, can be extrapolated to analyse meteorological and land use scenarios. Future work will focus on coupling with nutrient transport and river water quality models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geohydrology: Methods and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
The Method of Fundamental Solutions for Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Free Surface Flows Using the Iterative Scheme
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1715; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081715 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this article, we present a meshless method based on the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) capable of solving free surface flow in three dimensions. Since the basis function of the MFS satisfies the governing equation, the advantage of the MFS is that [...] Read more.
In this article, we present a meshless method based on the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) capable of solving free surface flow in three dimensions. Since the basis function of the MFS satisfies the governing equation, the advantage of the MFS is that only the problem boundary needs to be placed in the collocation points. For solving the three-dimensional free surface with nonlinear boundary conditions, the relaxation method in conjunction with the MFS is used, in which the three-dimensional free surface is iterated as a movable boundary until the nonlinear boundary conditions are satisfied. The proposed method is verified and application examples are conducted. Comparing results with those from other methods shows that the method is robust and provides high accuracy and reliability. The effectiveness and ease of use for solving nonlinear free surface flows in three dimensions are also revealed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geohydrology: Methods and Applications)
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