Topical Collection "Lamins and Laminopathies"

Editor

Dr. Thomas Dechat
Website
Collection Editor
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology, 1st Medical Department of Hanusch Hospital, Heinrich Collin Str. 30, A-1140 Vienna, Austria
Interests: nuclear lamins; LAP2alpha; nuclear structure; nuclear envelope disassembly and assembly; chromatin organization; cell cycle regulation; premature aging
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

About 18 years ago, the interest in lamins increased significantly within the scientific community with the discovery that mutations in the gene encoding A-type lamins (LMNA) could lead to human diseases. Up to now there have been reports of nearly 500 distinct mutations in LMNA, associated with over 10 distinct human diseases, which are now generally termed laminopathies and range from muscular dystrophies, cardiomyopathies and lipodystrophies to premature aging diseases, such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

Nuclear lamins are type V intermediate filament (IF) proteins and the main constituents of the nuclear lamina, a filamentous meshwork underlying the inner nuclear membrane and anchoring chromatin to the nuclear envelope (NE). Beside their structural role determining nuclear shape and stability, lamins are involved in various essential cellular functions, such as gene expression, chromatin organization, DNA replication and repair, cell proliferation and differentiation, and mechanosensing. This Topical Collection gives the opportunity to publish original research, as well as review articles, in an Open Access format in the exciting and still growing field of nuclear lamins and laminopathies. We aim to become a platform for lamin researchers and to build a comprehensive collection of articles covering the various aspects of lamins. Therefore we welcome contributions ranging from the molecular structure and properties of lamins, their involvement in specific cellular processes up to the molecular mechanisms underlying the distinct laminopathies in humans and mouse models.

Dr. Thomas Dechat
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nuclear lamins
  • lamin-binding proteins
  • chromatin organization
  • gene expression
  • mechanosensing
  • laminopathies
  • nuclear envelope
  • cell proliferation and differentiation
  • DNA repair
  • mouse models

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (41 papers)

2020

Jump to: 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016

Open AccessReview
Modeling of Cell Nuclear Mechanics: Classes, Components, and Applications
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1623; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071623 - 06 Jul 2020
Abstract
Cell nuclei are paramount for both cellular function and mechanical stability. These two roles of nuclei are intertwined as altered mechanical properties of nuclei are associated with altered cell behavior and disease. To further understand the mechanical properties of cell nuclei and guide [...] Read more.
Cell nuclei are paramount for both cellular function and mechanical stability. These two roles of nuclei are intertwined as altered mechanical properties of nuclei are associated with altered cell behavior and disease. To further understand the mechanical properties of cell nuclei and guide future experiments, many investigators have turned to mechanical modeling. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of mechanical modeling of cell nuclei with an emphasis on the role of the nuclear lamina in hopes of spurring future growth of this field. The goal of this review is to provide an introduction to mechanical modeling techniques, highlight current applications to nuclear mechanics, and give insight into future directions of mechanical modeling. There are three main classes of mechanical models—schematic, continuum mechanics, and molecular dynamics—which provide unique advantages and limitations. Current experimental understanding of the roles of the cytoskeleton, the nuclear lamina, and the chromatin in nuclear mechanics provide the basis for how each component is subsequently treated in mechanical models. Modeling allows us to interpret assay-specific experimental results for key parameters and quantitatively predict emergent behaviors. This is specifically powerful when emergent phenomena, such as lamin-based strain stiffening, can be deduced from complimentary experimental techniques. Modeling differences in force application, geometry, or composition can additionally clarify seemingly conflicting experimental results. Using these approaches, mechanical models have informed our understanding of relevant biological processes such as migration, nuclear blebbing, nuclear rupture, and cell spreading and detachment. There remain many aspects of nuclear mechanics for which additional mechanical modeling could provide immediate insight. Although mechanical modeling of cell nuclei has been employed for over a decade, there are still relatively few models for any given biological phenomenon. This implies that an influx of research into this realm of the field has the potential to dramatically shape both future experiments and our current understanding of nuclear mechanics, function, and disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cytokine Profile in Striated Muscle Laminopathies: New Promising Biomarkers for Disease Prediction
Cells 2020, 9(6), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061532 - 23 Jun 2020
Abstract
Laminopathies are a wide and heterogeneous group of rare human diseases caused by mutations of the LMNA gene or related nuclear envelope genes. The variety of clinical phenotypes and the wide spectrum of histopathological changes among patients carrying an identical mutation in the [...] Read more.
Laminopathies are a wide and heterogeneous group of rare human diseases caused by mutations of the LMNA gene or related nuclear envelope genes. The variety of clinical phenotypes and the wide spectrum of histopathological changes among patients carrying an identical mutation in the LMNA gene make the prognostic process rather difficult, and classical genetic screens appear to have limited predictive value for disease development. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive profile of circulating cytokines may be a useful tool to differentiate and stratify disease subgroups, support clinical follow-ups and contribute to new therapeutic approaches. Serum levels of 51 pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules, including cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, were quantified by a Luminex multiple immune-assay in 53 patients with muscular laminopathy (Musc-LMNA), 10 with non-muscular laminopathy, 22 with other muscular disorders and in 35 healthy controls. Interleukin-17 (IL-17), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β2) levels significantly discriminated Musc-LMNA from controls; interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were differentially expressed in Musc-LMNA patients compared to those with non-muscular laminopathies, whereas IL-17 was significantly higher in Musc-LMNA patients with muscular and cardiac involvement. These findings support the hypothesis of a key role of the immune system in Musc-LMNA and emphasize the potential use of cytokines as biomarkers for these disorders. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
EDMD-Causing Emerin Mutant Myogenic Progenitors Exhibit Impaired Differentiation Using Similar Mechanisms
Cells 2020, 9(6), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061463 - 15 Jun 2020
Abstract
Mutations in the gene encoding emerin (EMD) cause Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD1), an inherited disorder characterized by progressive skeletal muscle wasting, irregular heart rhythms and contractures of major tendons. The skeletal muscle defects seen in EDMD are caused by failure of [...] Read more.
Mutations in the gene encoding emerin (EMD) cause Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD1), an inherited disorder characterized by progressive skeletal muscle wasting, irregular heart rhythms and contractures of major tendons. The skeletal muscle defects seen in EDMD are caused by failure of muscle stem cells to differentiate and regenerate the damaged muscle. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Most EDMD1 patients harbor nonsense mutations and have no detectable emerin protein. There are three EDMD-causing emerin mutants (S54F, Q133H, and Δ95–99) that localize correctly to the nuclear envelope and are expressed at wildtype levels. We hypothesized these emerin mutants would share in the disruption of key molecular pathways involved in myogenic differentiation. We generated myogenic progenitors expressing wildtype emerin and each EDMD1-causing emerin mutation (S54F, Q133H, Δ95–99) in an emerin-null (EMD−/y) background. S54F, Q133H, and Δ95–99 failed to rescue EMD−/y myogenic differentiation, while wildtype emerin efficiently rescued differentiation. RNA sequencing was done to identify pathways and networks important for emerin regulation of myogenic differentiation. This analysis significantly reduced the number of pathways implicated in EDMD1 muscle pathogenesis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Targeted Regulation of Nuclear Lamins by Ubiquitin and Ubiquitin-Like Modifiers
Cells 2020, 9(6), 1340; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061340 - 27 May 2020
Abstract
Nuclear lamins (NLs) are essential components of the animal cell nucleus involved in the regulation of a plethora of molecular and cellular processes. These include the nuclear envelope assembly and stability, mechanotransduction and chromatin organization, transcription, DNA replication, damage repair, and genomic integrity [...] Read more.
Nuclear lamins (NLs) are essential components of the animal cell nucleus involved in the regulation of a plethora of molecular and cellular processes. These include the nuclear envelope assembly and stability, mechanotransduction and chromatin organization, transcription, DNA replication, damage repair, and genomic integrity maintenance. Mutations in NLs can lead to the development of a wide range of distinct disease phenotypes, laminopathies, consisting of cardiac, neuromuscular, metabolic and premature aging syndromes. In addition, alterations in the expression of nuclear lamins were associated with different types of neoplastic diseases. Despite the importance and critical roles that NLs play in the diverse cellular activities, we only recently started to uncover the complexity of regulatory mechanisms governing their expression, localization and functions. This integrative review summarizes and discusses the recent findings on the emerging roles of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers (ULMs) in the regulation of NLs, highlighting the intriguing molecular associations and cross-talks occurring between NLs and these regulatory molecules under physiological conditions and in the disease states. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Crucial Role of Lamin A/C in the Migration and Differentiation of MSCs in Bone
Cells 2020, 9(6), 1330; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061330 - 26 May 2020
Abstract
Lamin A/C, intermediate filament proteins from the nuclear lamina encoded by the LMNA gene, play a central role in mediating the mechanosignaling of cytoskeletal forces into nucleus. In fact, this mechanotransduction process is essential to ensure the proper functioning of other tasks also [...] Read more.
Lamin A/C, intermediate filament proteins from the nuclear lamina encoded by the LMNA gene, play a central role in mediating the mechanosignaling of cytoskeletal forces into nucleus. In fact, this mechanotransduction process is essential to ensure the proper functioning of other tasks also mediated by lamin A/C: the structural support of the nucleus and the regulation of gene expression. In this way, lamin A/C is fundamental for the migration and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the progenitors of osteoblasts, thus affecting bone homeostasis. Bone formation is a complex process regulated by chemical and mechanical cues, coming from the surrounding extracellular matrix. MSCs respond to signals modulating the expression levels of lamin A/C, and therefore, adapting their nuclear shape and stiffness. To promote cell migration, MSCs need soft nuclei with low lamin A content. Conversely, during osteogenic differentiation, lamin A/C levels are known to be increased. Several LMNA mutations present a negative impact in the migration and osteogenesis of MSCs, affecting bone tissue homeostasis and leading to pathological conditions. This review aims to describe these concepts by discussing the latest state-of-the-art in this exciting area, focusing on the relationship between lamin A/C in MSCs’ function and bone tissue from both, health and pathological points of view. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Lamin A/C Mechanotransduction in Laminopathies
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051306 - 24 May 2020
Abstract
Mechanotransduction translates forces into biological responses and regulates cell functionalities. It is implicated in several diseases, including laminopathies which are pathologies associated with mutations in lamins and lamin-associated proteins. These pathologies affect muscle, adipose, bone, nerve, and skin cells and range from muscular [...] Read more.
Mechanotransduction translates forces into biological responses and regulates cell functionalities. It is implicated in several diseases, including laminopathies which are pathologies associated with mutations in lamins and lamin-associated proteins. These pathologies affect muscle, adipose, bone, nerve, and skin cells and range from muscular dystrophies to accelerated aging. Although the exact mechanisms governing laminopathies and gene expression are still not clear, a strong correlation has been found between cell functionality and nuclear behavior. New theories base on the direct effect of external force on the genome, which is indeed sensitive to the force transduced by the nuclear lamina. Nuclear lamina performs two essential functions in mechanotransduction pathway modulating the nuclear stiffness and governing the chromatin remodeling. Indeed, A-type lamin mutation and deregulation has been found to affect the nuclear response, altering several downstream cellular processes such as mitosis, chromatin organization, DNA replication-transcription, and nuclear structural integrity. In this review, we summarize the recent findings on the molecular composition and architecture of the nuclear lamina, its role in healthy cells and disease regulation. We focus on A-type lamins since this protein family is the most involved in mechanotransduction and laminopathies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Progerin Expression Induces Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Senescence in Human Coronary Endothelial Cells
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051201 - 12 May 2020
Abstract
Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature aging disorder notably characterized by precocious and deadly atherosclerosis. Almost 90% of HGPS patients carry a LMNA p.G608G splice variant that leads to the expression of a permanently farnesylated abnormal form of prelamin-A, referred to [...] Read more.
Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature aging disorder notably characterized by precocious and deadly atherosclerosis. Almost 90% of HGPS patients carry a LMNA p.G608G splice variant that leads to the expression of a permanently farnesylated abnormal form of prelamin-A, referred to as progerin. Endothelial dysfunction is a key determinant of atherosclerosis, notably during aging. Previous studies have shown that progerin accumulates in HGPS patients’ endothelial cells but also during vascular physiological aging. However, whether progerin expression in human endothelial cells can recapitulate features of endothelial dysfunction is currently unknown. Herein, we evaluated the direct impact of exogenously expressed progerin and wild-type lamin-A on human endothelial cell function and senescence. Our data demonstrate that progerin, but not wild-type lamin-A, overexpression induces endothelial cell dysfunction, characterized by increased inflammation and oxidative stress together with persistent DNA damage, increased cell cycle arrest protein expression and cellular senescence. Inhibition of progerin prenylation using a pravastatin–zoledronate combination partly prevents these defects. Our data suggest a direct proatherogenic role of progerin in human endothelial cells, which could contribute to HGPS-associated early atherosclerosis and also potentially be involved in physiological endothelial aging participating to age-related cardiometabolic diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatiotemporal Mislocalization of Nuclear Membrane-Associated Proteins in γ-Irradiation-Induced Senescent Cells
Cells 2020, 9(4), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9040999 - 17 Apr 2020
Abstract
Cellular senescence, induced by genotoxic or replication stress, is accompanied by defects in nuclear morphology and nuclear membrane-heterochromatin disruption. In this work, we analyzed cytological and molecular changes in the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex proteins in senescence triggered by γ-irradiation. [...] Read more.
Cellular senescence, induced by genotoxic or replication stress, is accompanied by defects in nuclear morphology and nuclear membrane-heterochromatin disruption. In this work, we analyzed cytological and molecular changes in the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex proteins in senescence triggered by γ-irradiation. We used human mammary carcinoma and osteosarcoma cell lines, both original and shRNA knockdown clones targeting lamin B receptor (LBR) and leading to LBR and lamin B (LB1) reduction. The expression status and integrity of LINC complex proteins (nesprin-1, SUN1, SUN2), lamin A/C, and emerin were analyzed by immunodetection using confocal microscopy and Western blot. The results show frequent mislocalization of these proteins from the nuclear membrane to cytoplasm and micronuclei and, in some cases, their fragmentation and amplification. The timing of these changes clearly preceded the onset of senescence. The LBR deficiency triggered neither senescence nor changes in the LINC protein distribution before irradiation. However, the cytological changes following irradiation were more pronounced in shRNA knockdown cells compared to original cell lines. We conclude that mislocalization of LINC complex proteins is a significant characteristic of cellular senescence phenotypes and may influence complex events at the nuclear membrane, including trafficking and heterochromatin attachment. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Lamin A and Prelamin A Counteract Migration of Osteosarcoma Cells
Cells 2020, 9(3), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9030774 - 22 Mar 2020
Abstract
A type lamins are fundamental components of the nuclear lamina. Changes in lamin A expression correlate with malignant transformation in several cancers. However, the role of lamin A has not been explored in osteosarcoma (OS). Here, we wanted to investigate the role of [...] Read more.
A type lamins are fundamental components of the nuclear lamina. Changes in lamin A expression correlate with malignant transformation in several cancers. However, the role of lamin A has not been explored in osteosarcoma (OS). Here, we wanted to investigate the role of lamin A in normal osteoblasts (OBs) and OS cells. Thus, we studied the expression of lamin A/C in OS cells compared to OBs and evaluated the effects of lamin A overexpression in OS cell lines. We show that, while lamin A expression increases during osteoblast differentiation, all examined OS cell lines express lower lamin A levels relative to differentiated OBs. The condition of low LMNA expression confers to OS cells a significant increase in migration potential, while overexpression of lamin A reduces migration ability of OS cells. Moreover, overexpression of unprocessable prelamin A also reduces cell migration. In agreement with the latter finding, OS cells which accumulate the highest prelamin A levels upon inhibition of lamin A maturation by statins, had significantly reduced migration ability. Importantly, OS cells subjected to statin treatment underwent apoptotic cell death in a RAS-independent, lamin A-dependent manner. Our results show that pro-apoptotic effects of statins and statin inhibitory effect on OS cell migration are comparable to those obtained by prelamin A accumulation and further suggest that modulation of lamin A expression and post-translational processing can be a tool to decrease migration potential in OS cells. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Silencing of Euchromatic Transposable Elements as a Consequence of Nuclear Lamina Dysfunction
Cells 2020, 9(3), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9030625 - 05 Mar 2020
Abstract
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genomic sequences that are normally repressed to avoid proliferation and genome instability. Gene silencing mechanisms repress TEs by RNA degradation or heterochromatin formation. Heterochromatin maintenance is therefore important to keep TEs silent. Loss of heterochromatic domains has been [...] Read more.
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genomic sequences that are normally repressed to avoid proliferation and genome instability. Gene silencing mechanisms repress TEs by RNA degradation or heterochromatin formation. Heterochromatin maintenance is therefore important to keep TEs silent. Loss of heterochromatic domains has been linked to lamin mutations, which have also been associated with derepression of TEs. In fact, lamins are structural components of the nuclear lamina (NL), which is considered a pivotal structure in the maintenance of heterochromatin domains at the nuclear periphery in a silent state. Here, we show that a lethal phenotype associated with Lamin loss-of-function mutations is influenced by Drosophila gypsy retrotransposons located in euchromatic regions, suggesting that NL dysfunction has also effects on active TEs located in euchromatic loci. In fact, expression analysis of different long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons and of one non-LTR retrotransposon located near active genes shows that Lamin inactivation determines the silencing of euchromatic TEs. Furthermore, we show that the silencing effect on euchromatic TEs spreads to the neighboring genomic regions, with a repressive effect on nearby genes. We propose that NL dysfunction may have opposed regulatory effects on TEs that depend on their localization in active or repressed regions of the genome. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Interactome Analysis of Emerin, MAN1 and LEM2 Reveals a Unique Role for LEM2 in Nucleotide Excision Repair
Cells 2020, 9(2), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020463 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
LAP2-Emerin-MAN1 (LEM) domain-containing proteins represent an abundant group of inner nuclear membrane proteins involved in diverse nuclear functions, but their functional redundancies remain unclear. Here, using the biotinylation-dependent proximity approach, we report proteome-wide comparative interactome analysis of the two structurally related LEM proteins [...] Read more.
LAP2-Emerin-MAN1 (LEM) domain-containing proteins represent an abundant group of inner nuclear membrane proteins involved in diverse nuclear functions, but their functional redundancies remain unclear. Here, using the biotinylation-dependent proximity approach, we report proteome-wide comparative interactome analysis of the two structurally related LEM proteins MAN1 (LEMD3) and LEM2 (LEMD2), and the more distantly related emerin (EMD). While over 60% of the relatively small group of MAN1 and emerin interactors were also found in the LEM2 interactome, the latter included a large number of candidates (>85%) unique for LEM2. The interacting partners unique for emerin support and provide further insight into the previously reported role of emerin in centrosome positioning, and the MAN1-specific interactors suggest a role of MAN1 in ribonucleoprotein complex assembly. Interestingly, the LEM2-specific interactome contained several proteins of the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Accordingly, LEM2-depleted cells, but not MAN1- and emerin-depleted cells, showed impaired proliferation following ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation and prolonged accumulation of γH2AX, similar to cells deficient in the nucleotide excision repair protein DNA damage-binding protein 1 (DDB1). These findings indicate impaired DNA damage repair in LEM2-depleted cells. Overall, this interactome study identifies new potential interaction partners of emerin, MAN1 and particularly LEM2, and describes a novel potential involvement of LEM2 in nucleotide excision repair at the nuclear periphery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Unraveling LMNA Mutations in Metabolic Syndrome: Cellular Phenotype and Clinical Pitfalls
Cells 2020, 9(2), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020310 - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
This study details the clinical and cellular phenotypes associated with two missense heterozygous mutations in LMNA, c.1745G>T p.(Arg582Leu), and c.1892G>A p.(Gly631Asp), in two patients with early onset of diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In these two patients, subcutaneous adipose [...] Read more.
This study details the clinical and cellular phenotypes associated with two missense heterozygous mutations in LMNA, c.1745G>T p.(Arg582Leu), and c.1892G>A p.(Gly631Asp), in two patients with early onset of diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In these two patients, subcutaneous adipose tissue was persistent, at least on the abdomen, and the serum leptin level remained in the normal range. Cellular studies showed elevated nuclear anomalies, an accelerated senescence rate and a decrease of replication capacity in patient cells. In cellular models, the overexpression of mutated prelamin A phenocopied misshapen nuclei, while the partial reduction of lamin A expression in patient cells significantly improved nuclear morphology. Altogether, these results suggest a link between lamin A mutant expression and senescence associated phenotypes. Transcriptome analysis of the whole subcutaneous adipose tissue from the two patients and three controls, paired for age and sex using RNA sequencing, showed the up regulation of genes implicated in immunity and the down regulation of genes involved in development and cell differentiation in patient adipose tissue. Therefore, our results suggest that some mutations in LMNA are associated with severe metabolic phenotypes without subcutaneous lipoatrophy, and are associated with nuclear misshaping. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
SUN1/2 Are Essential for RhoA/ROCK-Regulated Actomyosin Activity in Isolated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
Cells 2020, 9(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9010132 - 06 Jan 2020
Abstract
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are the predominant cell type in the blood vessel wall. Changes in VSMC actomyosin activity and morphology are prevalent in cardiovascular disease. The actin cytoskeleton actively defines cellular shape and the LInker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, [...] Read more.
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are the predominant cell type in the blood vessel wall. Changes in VSMC actomyosin activity and morphology are prevalent in cardiovascular disease. The actin cytoskeleton actively defines cellular shape and the LInker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, comprised of nesprin and the Sad1p, UNC-84 (SUN)-domain family members SUN1/2, has emerged as a key regulator of actin cytoskeletal organisation. Although SUN1 and SUN2 function is partially redundant, they possess specific functions and LINC complex composition is tailored for cell-type-specific functions. We investigated the importance of SUN1 and SUN2 in regulating actomyosin activity and cell morphology in VSMCs. We demonstrate that siRNA-mediated depletion of either SUN1 or SUN2 altered VSMC spreading and impaired actomyosin activity and RhoA activity. Importantly, these findings were recapitulated using aortic VSMCs isolated from wild-type and SUN2 knockout (SUN2 KO) mice. Inhibition of actomyosin activity, using the rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase1/2 (ROCK1/2) inhibitor Y27632 or blebbistatin, reduced SUN2 mobility in the nuclear envelope and decreased the association between SUN2 and lamin A, confirming that SUN2 dynamics and interactions are influenced by actomyosin activity. We propose that the LINC complex exists in a mechanical feedback circuit with RhoA to regulate VSMC actomyosin activity and morphology. Full article
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2019

Jump to: 2020, 2018, 2017, 2016

Open AccessReview
Cellular and Animal Models of Striated Muscle Laminopathies
Cells 2019, 8(4), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8040291 - 29 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The lamin A/C (LMNA) gene codes for nuclear intermediate filaments constitutive of the nuclear lamina. LMNA has 12 exons and alternative splicing of exon 10 results in two major isoforms—lamins A and C. Mutations found throughout the LMNA gene cause a [...] Read more.
The lamin A/C (LMNA) gene codes for nuclear intermediate filaments constitutive of the nuclear lamina. LMNA has 12 exons and alternative splicing of exon 10 results in two major isoforms—lamins A and C. Mutations found throughout the LMNA gene cause a group of diseases collectively known as laminopathies, of which the type, diversity, penetrance and severity of phenotypes can vary from one individual to the other, even between individuals carrying the same mutation. The majority of the laminopathies affect cardiac and/or skeletal muscles. The underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to such tissue-specific phenotypes caused by mutations in a ubiquitously expressed gene are not yet well elucidated. This review will explore the different phenotypes observed in established models of striated muscle laminopathies and their respective contributions to advancing our understanding of cardiac and skeletal muscle-related laminopathies. Potential future directions for developing effective treatments for patients with lamin A/C mutation-associated cardiac and/or skeletal muscle conditions will be discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Lamina Associated Domains and Gene Regulation in Development and Cancer
Cells 2019, 8(3), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8030271 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
The nuclear lamina (NL) is a thin meshwork of filaments that lines the inner nuclear membrane, thereby providing a platform for chromatin binding and supporting genome organization. Genomic regions contacting the NL are lamina associated domains (LADs), which contain thousands of genes that [...] Read more.
The nuclear lamina (NL) is a thin meshwork of filaments that lines the inner nuclear membrane, thereby providing a platform for chromatin binding and supporting genome organization. Genomic regions contacting the NL are lamina associated domains (LADs), which contain thousands of genes that are lowly transcribed, and enriched for repressive histone modifications. LADs are dynamic structures that shift spatial positioning in accordance with cell-type specific gene expression changes during differentiation and development. Furthermore, recent studies have linked the disruption of LADs and alterations in the epigenome with the onset of diseases such as cancer. Here we focus on the role of LADs and the NL in gene regulation during development and cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tissue-Specific Influence of Lamin A Mutations on Notch Signaling and Osteogenic Phenotype of Primary Human Mesenchymal Cells
Cells 2019, 8(3), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8030266 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Lamin A is involved in many cellular functions due to its ability to bind chromatin and transcription factors and affect their properties. Mutations of LMNA gene encoding lamin A affect the differentiation capacity of stem cells, but the mechanisms of this influence remain [...] Read more.
Lamin A is involved in many cellular functions due to its ability to bind chromatin and transcription factors and affect their properties. Mutations of LMNA gene encoding lamin A affect the differentiation capacity of stem cells, but the mechanisms of this influence remain largely unclear. We and others have reported recently an interaction of lamin A with Notch pathway, which is among the main developmental regulators of cellular identity. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of LMNA mutations on the proosteogenic response of human cells of mesenchymal origin and to further explore the interaction of LMNA with Notch pathway. Mutations R527C and R471C in LMNA are associated with mandibuloacral dysplasia type A, a highly penetrant disease with a variety of abnormalities involving bone development. We used lentiviral constructs bearing mutations R527C and R471C and explored its influence on proosteogenic phenotype expression and Notch pathway activity in four types of human cells: umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), cardiac mesenchymal cells (HCMC), aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC), and aortic valve interstitial cells (HAVIC). The proosteogenic response of the cells was induced by the addition of either LPS or specific effectors of osteogenic differentiation to the culture medium; phenotype was estimated by the expression of osteogenic markers by qPCR; activation of Notch was assessed by expression of Notch-related and Notch-responsive genes by qPCR and by activation of a luciferase CSL-reporter construct. Overall, we observed different reactivity of all four cell lineages to the stimulation with either LPS or osteogenic factors. R527C had a stronger influence on the proosteogenic phenotype. We observed the inhibiting action of LMNA R527C on osteogenic differentiation in HCMC in the presence of activated Notch signaling, while LMNA R527C caused the activation of osteogenic differentiation in HAVIC in the presence of activated Notch signaling. Our results suggest that the effect of a LMNA mutation is strongly dependent not only on a specific mutation itself, but also might be influenced by the intrinsic molecular context of a cell lineage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Emerin Is Required for Proper Nucleus Reassembly after Mitosis: Implications for New Pathogenetic Mechanisms for Laminopathies Detected in EDMD1 Patients
Cells 2019, 8(3), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8030240 - 13 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Emerin is an essential LEM (LAP2, Emerin, MAN1) domain protein in metazoans and an integral membrane protein associated with inner and outer nuclear membranes. Mutations in the human EMD gene coding for emerin result in the rare genetic disorder: Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy type [...] Read more.
Emerin is an essential LEM (LAP2, Emerin, MAN1) domain protein in metazoans and an integral membrane protein associated with inner and outer nuclear membranes. Mutations in the human EMD gene coding for emerin result in the rare genetic disorder: Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy type 1 (EDMD1). This disease belongs to a broader group called laminopathies—a heterogeneous group of rare genetic disorders affecting tissues of mesodermal origin. EDMD1 phenotype is characterized by progressive muscle wasting, contractures of the elbow and Achilles tendons, and cardiac conduction defects. Emerin is involved in many cellular and intranuclear processes through interactions with several partners: lamins; barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF), β-catenin, actin, and tubulin. Our study demonstrates the presence of the emerin fraction which associates with mitotic spindle microtubules and centrosomes during mitosis and colocalizes during early mitosis with lamin A/C, BAF, and membranes at the mitotic spindle. Transfection studies with cells expressing EGFP-emerin protein demonstrate that the emerin fusion protein fraction also localizes to centrosomes and mitotic spindle microtubules during mitosis. Transient expression of emerin deletion mutants revealed that the resulting phenotypes vary and are mutant dependent. The most frequent phenotypes include aberrant nuclear shape, tubulin network mislocalization, aberrant mitosis, and mislocalization of centrosomes. Emerin deletion mutants demonstrated different chromatin binding capacities in an in vitro nuclear assembly assay and chromatin-binding properties correlated with the strength of phenotypic alteration in transfected cells. Aberrant tubulin staining and microtubule network phenotype appearance depended on the presence of the tubulin binding region in the expressed deletion mutants. We believe that the association with tubulin might help to “deliver” emerin and associated membranes to decondensing chromatin. Preliminary analyses of cells from Polish patients with EDMD1 revealed that for several mutations thought to be null for emerin protein, a truncated emerin protein was present. We infer that the EDMD1 phenotype may be strengthened by the toxicity of truncated emerin expressed in patients with certain nonsense mutations in EMD. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Deciphering Nuclear Mechanobiology in Laminopathy
Cells 2019, 8(3), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8030231 - 11 Mar 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Extracellular mechanical stimuli are translated into biochemical signals inside the cell via mechanotransduction. The nucleus plays a critical role in mechanoregulation, which encompasses mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. The nuclear lamina underlying the inner nuclear membrane not only maintains the structural integrity, but also connects [...] Read more.
Extracellular mechanical stimuli are translated into biochemical signals inside the cell via mechanotransduction. The nucleus plays a critical role in mechanoregulation, which encompasses mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. The nuclear lamina underlying the inner nuclear membrane not only maintains the structural integrity, but also connects the cytoskeleton to the nuclear envelope. Lamin mutations, therefore, dysregulate the nuclear response, resulting in abnormal mechanoregulations, and ultimately, disease progression. Impaired mechanoregulations even induce malfunction in nuclear positioning, cell migration, mechanosensation, as well as differentiation. To know how to overcome laminopathies, we need to understand the mechanisms of laminopathies in a mechanobiological way. Recently, emerging studies have demonstrated the varying defects from lamin mutation in cellular homeostasis within mechanical surroundings. Therefore, this review summarizes recent findings highlighting the role of lamins, the architecture of nuclear lamina, and their disease relevance in the context of nuclear mechanobiology. We will also provide an overview of the differentiation of cellular mechanics in laminopathy. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Nuclear Lamina as an Organizer of Chromosome Architecture
Cells 2019, 8(2), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8020136 - 08 Feb 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
The nuclear lamina (NL) is a meshwork of lamins and lamin-associated proteins adjoining the inner side of the nuclear envelope. In early embryonic cells, the NL mainly suppresses background transcription, whereas, in differentiated cell types, its disruption affects gene expression more severely. Normally, [...] Read more.
The nuclear lamina (NL) is a meshwork of lamins and lamin-associated proteins adjoining the inner side of the nuclear envelope. In early embryonic cells, the NL mainly suppresses background transcription, whereas, in differentiated cell types, its disruption affects gene expression more severely. Normally, the NL serves as a backbone for multiple chromatin anchoring sites, thus shaping the spatial organization of chromosomes in the interphase nucleus. However, upon cell senescence, aging, or in some types of terminally differentiated cells and lamin-associated diseases, the loss of NL-chromatin tethering causes drastic alterations in chromosome architecture. Here, we provide an overview of the recent advances in the field of NL-chromatin interactions, focusing on their impact on chromatin positioning, compaction, repression, and spatial organization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Host Vesicle Fusion Protein VAPB Contributes to the Nuclear Egress Stage of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1) Replication
Cells 2019, 8(2), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8020120 - 03 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The primary envelopment/de-envelopment of Herpes viruses during nuclear exit is poorly understood. In Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), proteins pUL31 and pUL34 are critical, while pUS3 and some others contribute; however, efficient membrane fusion may require additional host proteins. We postulated that vesicle [...] Read more.
The primary envelopment/de-envelopment of Herpes viruses during nuclear exit is poorly understood. In Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), proteins pUL31 and pUL34 are critical, while pUS3 and some others contribute; however, efficient membrane fusion may require additional host proteins. We postulated that vesicle fusion proteins present in the nuclear envelope might facilitate primary envelopment and/or de-envelopment fusion with the outer nuclear membrane. Indeed, a subpopulation of vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB), a known vesicle trafficking protein, was present in the nuclear membrane co-locating with pUL34. VAPB knockdown significantly reduced both cell-associated and supernatant virus titers. Moreover, VAPB depletion reduced cytoplasmic accumulation of virus particles and increased levels of nuclear encapsidated viral DNA. These results suggest that VAPB is an important player in the exit of primary enveloped HSV-1 virions from the nucleus. Importantly, VAPB knockdown did not alter pUL34, calnexin or GM-130 localization during infection, arguing against an indirect effect of VAPB on cellular vesicles and trafficking. Immunogold-labelling electron microscopy confirmed VAPB presence in nuclear membranes and moreover associated with primary enveloped HSV-1 particles. These data suggest that VAPB could be a cellular component of a complex that facilitates UL31/UL34/US3-mediated HSV-1 nuclear egress. Full article
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2018

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Samp1 Mislocalization in Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy
Cells 2018, 7(10), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7100170 - 15 Oct 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
LMNA linked-Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD2) is a rare disease characterized by muscle weakness, muscle wasting, and cardiomyopathy with conduction defects. The mutated protein lamin A/C binds several nuclear envelope components including the Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex and the inner nuclear [...] Read more.
LMNA linked-Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD2) is a rare disease characterized by muscle weakness, muscle wasting, and cardiomyopathy with conduction defects. The mutated protein lamin A/C binds several nuclear envelope components including the Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex and the inner nuclear membrane protein Samp1 (Spindle Associated Membrane Protein 1). Considering that Samp1 is upregulated during muscle cell differentiation and it is involved in nuclear movement, we hypothesized that it could be part of the protein platform formed by LINC proteins and prelamin A at the myotube nuclear envelope and, as previously demonstrated for those proteins, could be affected in EDMD2. Our results show that Samp1 is uniformly distributed at the nuclear periphery of normal human myotubes and committed myoblasts, but its anchorage at the nuclear poles is related to the presence of farnesylated prelamin A and it is disrupted by the loss of prelamin A farnesylation. Moreover, Samp1 is absent from the nuclear poles in EDMD2 myotubes, which shows that LMNA mutations associated with muscular dystrophy, due to reduced prelamin A levels in muscle cell nuclei, impair Samp1 anchorage. Conversely, SUN1 pathogenetic mutations do not alter Samp1 localization in myotubes, which suggests that Samp1 lies upstream of SUN1 in nuclear envelope protein complexes. The hypothesis that Samp1 is part of the protein platform that regulates microtubule nucleation from the myotube nuclear envelope in concert with pericentrin and LINC components warrants future investigation. As a whole, our data identify Samp1 as a new contributor to EDMD2 pathogenesis and our data are relevant to the understanding of nuclear clustering occurring in laminopathic muscle. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Lamins in Lung Cancer: Biomarkers and Key Factors for Disease Progression through miR-9 Regulation?
Cells 2018, 7(7), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7070078 - 16 Jul 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Lung cancer represents the primary cause of cancer death in the world. Malignant cells identification and characterization are crucial for the diagnosis and management of patients with primary or metastatic cancers. In this context, the identification of new biomarkers is essential to improve [...] Read more.
Lung cancer represents the primary cause of cancer death in the world. Malignant cells identification and characterization are crucial for the diagnosis and management of patients with primary or metastatic cancers. In this context, the identification of new biomarkers is essential to improve the differential diagnosis between cancer subtypes, to select the most appropriate therapy, and to establish prognostic correlations. Nuclear abnormalities are hallmarks of carcinoma cells and are used as cytological diagnostic criteria of malignancy. Lamins (divided into A- and B-types) are localized in the nuclear matrix comprising nuclear lamina, where they act as scaffolding protein, involved in many nuclear functions, with regulatory effects on the cell cycle and differentiation, senescence and apoptosis. Previous studies have suggested that lamins are involved in tumor development and progression with opposite results concerning their prognostic role. This review provides an overview of lamins expression in lung cancer and the relevance of these findings for disease diagnosis and prognosis. Furthermore, we discuss the link between A-type lamins expression in lung carcinoma cells and nuclear deformability, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and metastatic potential, and which mechanisms could regulate A-type lamins expression in lung cancer, such as the microRNA miR-9. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
OGT (O-GlcNAc Transferase) Selectively Modifies Multiple Residues Unique to Lamin A
Cells 2018, 7(5), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7050044 - 17 May 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The LMNA gene encodes lamins A and C with key roles in nuclear structure, signaling, gene regulation, and genome integrity. Mutations in LMNA cause over 12 diseases (‘laminopathies’). Lamins A and C are identical for their first 566 residues. However, they form separate [...] Read more.
The LMNA gene encodes lamins A and C with key roles in nuclear structure, signaling, gene regulation, and genome integrity. Mutations in LMNA cause over 12 diseases (‘laminopathies’). Lamins A and C are identical for their first 566 residues. However, they form separate filaments in vivo, with apparently distinct roles. We report that lamin A is β-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine-(O-GlcNAc)-modified in human hepatoma (Huh7) cells and in mouse liver. In vitro assays with purified O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) enzyme showed robust O-GlcNAcylation of recombinant mature lamin A tails (residues 385–646), with no detectable modification of lamin B1, lamin C, or ‘progerin’ (Δ50) tails. Using mass spectrometry, we identified 11 O-GlcNAc sites in a ‘sweet spot’ unique to lamin A, with up to seven sugars per peptide. Most sites were unpredicted by current algorithms. Double-mutant (S612A/T643A) lamin A tails were still robustly O-GlcNAc-modified at seven sites. By contrast, O-GlcNAcylation was undetectable on tails bearing deletion Δ50, which causes Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome, and greatly reduced by deletion Δ35. We conclude that residues deleted in progeria are required for substrate recognition and/or modification by OGT in vitro. Interestingly, deletion Δ35, which does not remove the majority of identified O-GlcNAc sites, does remove potential OGT-association motifs (lamin A residues 622–625 and 639–645) homologous to that in mouse Tet1. These biochemical results are significant because they identify a novel molecular pathway that may profoundly influence lamin A function. The hypothesis that lamin A is selectively regulated by OGT warrants future testing in vivo, along with two predictions: genetic variants may contribute to disease by perturbing OGT-dependent regulation, and nutrient or other stresses might cause OGT to misregulate wildtype lamin A. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Autophagic Removal of Farnesylated Carboxy-Terminal Lamin Peptides
Cells 2018, 7(4), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7040033 - 23 Apr 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
The mammalian nuclear lamina proteins—prelamin A- and B-type lamins—are post-translationally modified by farnesylation, endoproteolysis, and carboxymethylation at a carboxy-terminal CAAX (C, cysteine; a, aliphatic amino acid; X, any amino acid) motif. However, prelamin A processing into mature lamin A is a unique process [...] Read more.
The mammalian nuclear lamina proteins—prelamin A- and B-type lamins—are post-translationally modified by farnesylation, endoproteolysis, and carboxymethylation at a carboxy-terminal CAAX (C, cysteine; a, aliphatic amino acid; X, any amino acid) motif. However, prelamin A processing into mature lamin A is a unique process because it results in the production of farnesylated and carboxymethylated peptides. In cells from patients with Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome, the mutant prelamin A protein, progerin, cannot release its prenylated carboxyl-terminal moiety and therefore remains permanently associated with the nuclear envelope (NE), causing severe nuclear alterations and a dysmorphic morphology. To obtain a better understanding of the abnormal interaction and retention of progerin in the NE, we analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution of the EGFP fusion proteins with or without a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a functional CAAX motif in HeLa cells transfected with a series of plasmids that encode the carboxy-terminal ends of progerin and prelamin A. The farnesylated carboxy-terminal fusion peptides bind to the NE and induce the formation of abnormally shaped nuclei. In contrast, the unfarnesylated counterparts exhibit a diffuse localization in the nucleoplasm, without obvious NE deformation. High levels of farnesylated prelamin A and progerin carboxy-terminal peptides induce nucleophagic degradation of the toxic protein, including several nuclear components and chromatin. However, SUN1, a constituent of the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, is excluded from these autophagic NE protrusions. Thus, nucleophagy requires NE flexibility, as indicated by SUN1 delocalization from the elongated NE–autophagosome complex. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Consequences of Lamin B1 and Lamin B Receptor Downregulation in Senescence
Cells 2018, 7(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7020011 - 06 Feb 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Anchoring of heterochromatin to the nuclear envelope appears to be an important process ensuring the spatial organization of the chromatin structure and genome function in eukaryotic nuclei. Proteins of the inner nuclear membrane (INM) mediating these interactions are able to recognize lamina-associated heterochromatin [...] Read more.
Anchoring of heterochromatin to the nuclear envelope appears to be an important process ensuring the spatial organization of the chromatin structure and genome function in eukaryotic nuclei. Proteins of the inner nuclear membrane (INM) mediating these interactions are able to recognize lamina-associated heterochromatin domains (termed LAD) and simultaneously bind either lamin A/C or lamin B1. One of these proteins is the lamin B receptor (LBR) that binds lamin B1 and tethers heterochromatin to the INM in embryonic and undifferentiated cells. It is replaced by lamin A/C with specific lamin A/C binding proteins at the beginning of cell differentiation and in differentiated cells. Our functional experiments in cancer cell lines show that heterochromatin in cancer cells is tethered to the INM by LBR, which is downregulated together with lamin B1 at the onset of cell transition to senescence. The downregulation of these proteins in senescent cells leads to the detachment of centromeric repetitive sequences from INM, their relocation to the nucleoplasm, and distension. In cells, the expression of LBR and LB1 is highly coordinated as evidenced by the reduction of both proteins in LBR shRNA lines. The loss of the constitutive heterochromatin structure containing LADs results in changes in chromatin architecture and genome function and can be the reason for the permanent loss of cell proliferation in senescence. Full article
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2017

Jump to: 2020, 2019, 2018, 2016

Open AccessReview
Venture from the Interior—Herpesvirus pUL31 Escorts Capsids from Nucleoplasmic Replication Compartments to Sites of Primary Envelopment at the Inner Nuclear Membrane
Cells 2017, 6(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells6040046 - 25 Nov 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Herpesviral capsid assembly is initiated in the nucleoplasm of the infected cell. Size constraints require that newly formed viral nucleocapsids leave the nucleus by an evolutionarily conserved vescular transport mechanism called nuclear egress. Mature capsids released from the nucleoplasm are engaged in a [...] Read more.
Herpesviral capsid assembly is initiated in the nucleoplasm of the infected cell. Size constraints require that newly formed viral nucleocapsids leave the nucleus by an evolutionarily conserved vescular transport mechanism called nuclear egress. Mature capsids released from the nucleoplasm are engaged in a membrane-mediated budding process, composed of primary envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane and de-envelopment at the outer nuclear membrane. Once in the cytoplasm, the capsids receive their secondary envelope for maturation into infectious virions. Two viral proteins conserved throughout the herpesvirus family, the integral membrane protein pUL34 and the phosphoprotein pUL31, form the nuclear egress complex required for capsid transport from the infected nucleus to the cytoplasm. Formation of the nuclear egress complex results in budding of membrane vesicles revealing its function as minimal virus-encoded membrane budding and scission machinery. The recent structural analysis unraveled details of the heterodimeric nuclear egress complex and the hexagonal coat it forms at the inside of budding vesicles to drive primary envelopment. With this review, I would like to present the capsid-escort-model where pUL31 associates with capsids in nucleoplasmic replication compartments for escort to sites of primary envelopment thereby coupling capsid maturation and nuclear egress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dupuytren’s and Ledderhose Diseases in a Family with LMNA-Related Cardiomyopathy and a Novel Variant in the ASTE1 Gene
Cells 2017, 6(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells6040040 - 01 Nov 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Dupuytren’s disease (palmar fibromatosis) involves nodules in fascia of the hand that leads to flexion contractures. Ledderhose disease (plantar fibromatosis) is similar with nodules of the foot. While clinical aspects are well-described, genetic mechanisms are unknown. We report a family with cardiac disease [...] Read more.
Dupuytren’s disease (palmar fibromatosis) involves nodules in fascia of the hand that leads to flexion contractures. Ledderhose disease (plantar fibromatosis) is similar with nodules of the foot. While clinical aspects are well-described, genetic mechanisms are unknown. We report a family with cardiac disease due to a heterozygous LMNA mutation (c.736C>T, p.Gln246Stop) with palmar/plantar fibromatosis and investigate the hypothesis that a second rare DNA variant increases the risk for fibrotic disease in LMNA mutation carriers. The proband and six family members were evaluated for the cardiac and hand/feet phenotypes and tested for the LMNA mutation. Fibroblast RNA studies revealed monoallelic expression of the normal LMNA allele and reduced lamin A/C mRNAs consistent with LMNA haploinsufficiency. A novel, heterozygous missense variant (c.230T>C, p.Val77Ala) in the Asteroid Homolog 1 (ASTE1) gene was identified as a potential risk factor in fibrotic disease using exome sequencing and family studies of five family members: four LMNA mutation carriers with fibromatosis and one individual without the LMNA mutation and no fibromatosis. With a possible role in epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, ASTE1 may contribute to the increased risk for palmar/plantar fibromatosis in patients with Lamin A/C haploinsufficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Expression Profiling of Differentiating Emerin-Null Myogenic Progenitor Identifies Molecular Pathways Implicated in Their Impaired Differentiation
Cells 2017, 6(4), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells6040038 - 22 Oct 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Mutations in the gene encoding emerin cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), a disorder causing progressive skeletal muscle wasting, irregular heart rhythms and contractures of major tendons. RNA sequencing was performed on differentiating wildtype and emerin-null myogenic progenitors to identify molecular pathways implicated in [...] Read more.
Mutations in the gene encoding emerin cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), a disorder causing progressive skeletal muscle wasting, irregular heart rhythms and contractures of major tendons. RNA sequencing was performed on differentiating wildtype and emerin-null myogenic progenitors to identify molecular pathways implicated in EDMD, 340 genes were uniquely differentially expressed during the transition from day 0 to day 1 in wildtype cells. 1605 genes were uniquely expressed in emerin-null cells; 1706 genes were shared among both wildtype and emerin-null cells. One thousand and forty-seven transcripts showed differential expression during the transition from day 1 to day 2. Four hundred and thirty-one transcripts showed altered expression in both wildtype and emerin-null cells. Two hundred and ninety-five transcripts were differentially expressed only in emerin-null cells and 321 transcripts were differentially expressed only in wildtype cells. DAVID, STRING and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified pathways implicated in impaired emerin-null differentiation, including cell signaling, cell cycle checkpoints, integrin signaling, YAP/TAZ signaling, stem cell differentiation, and multiple muscle development and myogenic differentiation pathways. Functional enrichment analysis showed biological functions associated with the growth of muscle tissue and myogenesis of skeletal muscle were inhibited. The large number of differentially expressed transcripts upon differentiation induction suggests emerin functions during transcriptional reprograming of progenitors to committed myoblasts. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Perspective on the Experimental Techniques for Studying Lamins
Cells 2017, 6(4), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells6040033 - 10 Oct 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Lamins are type V intermediate filaments that collectively form a meshwork underneath the inner nuclear membrane, called nuclear lamina. Furthermore, they are also present in the nucleoplasm. Lamins are experiencing a growing interest, since a wide range of diseases are induced by mutations [...] Read more.
Lamins are type V intermediate filaments that collectively form a meshwork underneath the inner nuclear membrane, called nuclear lamina. Furthermore, they are also present in the nucleoplasm. Lamins are experiencing a growing interest, since a wide range of diseases are induced by mutations in the gene coding for A-type lamins, globally known as laminopathies. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that lamins are involved in other pathological conditions, like cancer. The role of lamins has been studied from several perspectives, exploiting different techniques and procedures. This multidisciplinary approach has contributed to resolving the unique features of lamins and has provided a thorough insight in their role in living organisms. Yet, there are still many unanswered questions, which constantly generate research in the field. The present work is aimed to review some interesting experimental techniques performed so far to study lamins. Scientists can take advantage of this collection for their novel investigations, being aware of the already pursued and consolidated methodologies. Hopefully, advances in these research directions will provide insights to achieve better diagnostic procedures and effective therapeutic options. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Lamin B Receptor: Interplay between Structure, Function and Localization
Cells 2017, 6(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells6030028 - 31 Aug 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Lamin B receptor (LBR) is an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane, containing a hydrophilic N-terminal end protruding into the nucleoplasm, eight hydrophobic segments that span the membrane and a short, nucleoplasmic C-terminal tail. Two seemingly unrelated functions have been [...] Read more.
Lamin B receptor (LBR) is an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane, containing a hydrophilic N-terminal end protruding into the nucleoplasm, eight hydrophobic segments that span the membrane and a short, nucleoplasmic C-terminal tail. Two seemingly unrelated functions have been attributed to LBR. Its N-terminal domain tethers heterochromatin to the nuclear periphery, thus contributing to the shape of interphase nuclear architecture, while its transmembrane domains exhibit sterol reductase activity. Mutations within the transmembrane segments result in defects in cholesterol synthesis and are associated with diseases such as the Pelger–Hu?t anomaly and Greenberg skeletal dysplasia, whereas no such harmful mutations related to the anchoring properties of LBR have been reported so far. Recent evidence suggests a dynamic regulation of LBR expression levels, structural organization, localization and function, in response to various signals. The molecular mechanisms underlying this dynamic behavior have not yet been fully unraveled. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of the interplay between the structure, function and localization of LBR, and hint at the interconnection of the two distinct functions of LBR. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Distinct Fiber Type Signature in Mouse Muscles Expressing a Mutant Lamin A Responsible for Congenital Muscular Dystrophy in a Patient
Cells 2017, 6(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells6020010 - 24 Apr 2017
Abstract
Specific mutations in LMNA, which encodes nuclear intermediate filament proteins lamins A/C, affect skeletal muscle tissues. Early-onset LMNA myopathies reveal different alterations of muscle fibers, including fiber type disproportion or prominent dystrophic and/or inflammatory changes. Recently, we identified the p.R388P LMNA mutation [...] Read more.
Specific mutations in LMNA, which encodes nuclear intermediate filament proteins lamins A/C, affect skeletal muscle tissues. Early-onset LMNA myopathies reveal different alterations of muscle fibers, including fiber type disproportion or prominent dystrophic and/or inflammatory changes. Recently, we identified the p.R388P LMNA mutation as responsible for congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD) and lipodystrophy. Here, we asked whether viral-mediated expression of mutant lamin A in murine skeletal muscles would be a pertinent model to reveal specific muscle alterations. We found that the total amount and size of muscle fibers as well as the extent of either inflammation or muscle regeneration were similar to wildtype or mutant lamin A. In contrast, the amount of fast oxidative muscle fibers containing myosin heavy chain IIA was lower upon expression of mutant lamin A, in correlation with lower expression of genes encoding transcription factors MEF2C and MyoD. These data validate this in vivo model for highlighting distinct muscle phenotypes associated with different lamin contexts. Additionally, the data suggest that alteration of muscle fiber type identity may contribute to the mechanisms underlying physiopathology of L-CMD related to R388P mutant lamin A. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microinjection of Antibodies Targeting the Lamin A/C Histone-Binding Site Blocks Mitotic Entry and Reveals Separate Chromatin Interactions with HP1, CenpB and PML
Cells 2017, 6(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells6020009 - 25 Mar 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Lamins form a scaffold lining the nucleus that binds chromatin and contributes to spatial genome organization; however, due to the many other functions of lamins, studies knocking out or altering the lamin polymer cannot clearly distinguish between direct and indirect effects. To overcome [...] Read more.
Lamins form a scaffold lining the nucleus that binds chromatin and contributes to spatial genome organization; however, due to the many other functions of lamins, studies knocking out or altering the lamin polymer cannot clearly distinguish between direct and indirect effects. To overcome this obstacle, we specifically targeted the mapped histone-binding site of A/C lamins by microinjecting antibodies specific to this region predicting that this would make the genome more mobile. No increase in chromatin mobility was observed; however, interestingly, injected cells failed to go through mitosis, while control antibody-injected cells did. This effect was not due to crosslinking of the lamin polymer, as Fab fragments also blocked mitosis. The lack of genome mobility suggested other lamin-chromatin interactions. To determine what these might be, mini-lamin A constructs were expressed with or without the histone-binding site that assembled into independent intranuclear structures. HP1, CenpB and PML proteins accumulated at these structures for both constructs, indicating that other sites supporting chromatin interactions exist on lamin A. Together, these results indicate that lamin A-chromatin interactions are highly redundant and more diverse than generally acknowledged and highlight the importance of trying to experimentally separate their individual functions. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Implications for Diverse Functions of the LINC Complexes Based on the Structure
Cells 2017, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells6010003 - 26 Jan 2017
Cited by 15
Abstract
The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex is composed of the outer and inner nuclear membrane protein families Klarsicht, Anc-1, and Syne homology (KASH), and Sad1 and UNC-84 (SUN) homology domain proteins. Increasing evidence has pointed to diverse functions of the LINC [...] Read more.
The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex is composed of the outer and inner nuclear membrane protein families Klarsicht, Anc-1, and Syne homology (KASH), and Sad1 and UNC-84 (SUN) homology domain proteins. Increasing evidence has pointed to diverse functions of the LINC complex, such as in nuclear migration, nuclear integrity, chromosome movement and pairing during meiosis, and mechanotransduction to the genome. In metazoan cells, the nuclear envelope possesses the nuclear lamina, which is a thin meshwork of intermediate filaments known as A-type and B-type lamins and lamin binding proteins. Both of lamins physically interact with the inner nuclear membrane spanning SUN proteins. The nuclear lamina has also been implicated in various functions, including maintenance of nuclear integrity, mechanotransduction, cellular signalling, and heterochromatin dynamics. Thus, it is clear that the LINC complex and nuclear lamins perform diverse but related functions. However, it is unknown whether the LINC complex–lamins interactions are involved in these diverse functions, and their regulation mechanism has thus far been elusive. Recent structural analysis suggested a dynamic nature of the LINC complex component, thus providing an explanation for LINC complex organization. This review, elaborating on the integration of crystallographic and biochemical data, helps to integrate this research to gain a better understanding of the diverse functions of the LINC complex. Full article
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2016

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Open AccessArticle
Prelamin A Accumulation Attenuates Rac1 Activity and Increases the Intrinsic Migrational Persistence of Aged Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
Cells 2016, 5(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells5040041 - 15 Nov 2016
Cited by 7
Abstract
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) motility is essential during both physiological and pathological vessel remodeling. Although ageing has emerged as a major risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, our understanding of the impact of ageing on VSMC motility remains limited. Prelamin [...] Read more.
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) motility is essential during both physiological and pathological vessel remodeling. Although ageing has emerged as a major risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, our understanding of the impact of ageing on VSMC motility remains limited. Prelamin A accumulation is known to drive VSMC ageing and we show that presenescent VSMCs, that have accumulated prelamin A, display increased focal adhesion dynamics, augmented migrational velocity/persistence and attenuated Rac1 activity. Importantly, prelamin A accumulation in proliferative VSMCs, induced by depletion of the prelamin A processing enzyme FACE1, recapitulated the focal adhesion, migrational persistence and Rac1 phenotypes observed in presenescent VSMCs. Moreover, lamin A/C-depleted VSMCs also display reduced Rac1 activity, suggesting that prelamin A influences Rac1 activity by interfering with lamin A/C function at the nuclear envelope. Taken together, these data demonstrate that lamin A/C maintains Rac1 activity in VSMCs and prelamin A disrupts lamin A/C function to reduce Rac1 activity and induce migrational persistence during VSMC ageing. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Implications and Assessment of the Elastic Behavior of Lamins in Laminopathies
Cells 2016, 5(4), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells5040037 - 14 Oct 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
Lamins are mechanosensitive and elastic components of the nuclear lamina that respond to external mechanical cues by altering gene regulation in a feedback mechanism. Numerous mutations in A-type lamins cause a plethora of diverse diseases collectively termed as laminopathies, the majority of which [...] Read more.
Lamins are mechanosensitive and elastic components of the nuclear lamina that respond to external mechanical cues by altering gene regulation in a feedback mechanism. Numerous mutations in A-type lamins cause a plethora of diverse diseases collectively termed as laminopathies, the majority of which are characterized by irregularly shaped, fragile, and plastic nuclei. These nuclei are challenged to normal mechanotransduction and lead to disease phenotypes. Here, we review our current understanding of the nucleocytoskeleton coupling in mechanotransduction mediated by lamins. We also present an up-to-date understanding of the methods used to determine laminar elasticity both at the bulk and single molecule level. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Skeletal Muscle Laminopathies: A Review of Clinical and Molecular Features
Cells 2016, 5(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells5030033 - 11 Aug 2016
Cited by 28
Abstract
LMNA-related disorders are caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes for the nuclear envelope proteins, lamin A and C, via alternative splicing. Laminopathies are associated with a wide range of disease phenotypes, including neuromuscular, cardiac, metabolic disorders and premature aging [...] Read more.
LMNA-related disorders are caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes for the nuclear envelope proteins, lamin A and C, via alternative splicing. Laminopathies are associated with a wide range of disease phenotypes, including neuromuscular, cardiac, metabolic disorders and premature aging syndromes. The most frequent diseases associated with mutations in the LMNA gene are characterized by skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement. This review will focus on genetics and clinical features of laminopathies affecting primarily skeletal muscle. Although only symptomatic treatment is available for these patients, many achievements have been made in clarifying the pathogenesis and improving the management of these diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antisense-Based Progerin Downregulation in HGPS-Like Patients’ Cells
Cells 2016, 5(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells5030031 - 11 Jul 2016
Cited by 13
Abstract
Progeroid laminopathies, including Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS, OMIM #176670), are premature and accelerated aging diseases caused by defects in nuclear A-type Lamins. Most HGPS patients carry a de novo point mutation within exon 11 of the LMNA gene encoding A-type Lamins. This mutation [...] Read more.
Progeroid laminopathies, including Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS, OMIM #176670), are premature and accelerated aging diseases caused by defects in nuclear A-type Lamins. Most HGPS patients carry a de novo point mutation within exon 11 of the LMNA gene encoding A-type Lamins. This mutation activates a cryptic splice site leading to the deletion of 50 amino acids at its carboxy-terminal domain, resulting in a truncated and permanently farnesylated Prelamin A called Prelamin A Δ50 or Progerin. Some patients carry other LMNA mutations affecting exon 11 splicing and are named “HGPS-like” patients. They also produce Progerin and/or other truncated Prelamin A isoforms (Δ35 and Δ90) at the transcriptional and/or protein level. The results we present show that morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (AON) prevent pathogenic LMNA splicing, markedly reducing the accumulation of Progerin and/or other truncated Prelamin A isoforms (Prelamin A Δ35, Prelamin A Δ90) in HGPS-like patients’ cells. Finally, a patient affected with Mandibuloacral Dysplasia type B (MAD-B, carrying a homozygous mutation in ZMPSTE24, encoding an enzyme involved in Prelamin A maturation, leading to accumulation of wild type farnesylated Prelamin A), was also included in this study. These results provide preclinical proof of principle for the use of a personalized antisense approach in HGPS-like and MAD-B patients, who may therefore be eligible for inclusion in a therapeutic trial based on this approach, together with classical HGPS patients. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Under Pressure: Mechanical Stress Management in the Nucleus
Cells 2016, 5(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells5020027 - 14 Jun 2016
Cited by 18
Abstract
Cells are constantly adjusting to the mechanical properties of their surroundings, operating a complex mechanochemical feedback, which hinges on mechanotransduction mechanisms. Whereas adhesion structures have been shown to play a central role in mechanotransduction, it now emerges that the nucleus may act as [...] Read more.
Cells are constantly adjusting to the mechanical properties of their surroundings, operating a complex mechanochemical feedback, which hinges on mechanotransduction mechanisms. Whereas adhesion structures have been shown to play a central role in mechanotransduction, it now emerges that the nucleus may act as a mechanosensitive structure. Here, we review recent advances demonstrating that mechanical stress emanating from the cytoskeleton can activate pathways in the nucleus which eventually impact both its structure and the transcriptional machinery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Heterozygous ZMPSTE24 Mutation Associated with Severe Metabolic Syndrome, Ectopic Fat Accumulation, and Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Cells 2016, 5(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells5020021 - 25 Apr 2016
Cited by 16
Abstract
ZMPSTE24 encodes the only metalloprotease, which transforms prelamin into mature lamin A. Up to now, mutations in ZMPSTE24 have been linked to Restrictive Dermopathy (RD), Progeria or Mandibulo-Acral Dysplasia (MAD). We report here the phenotype of a patient referred for severe metabolic syndrome [...] Read more.
ZMPSTE24 encodes the only metalloprotease, which transforms prelamin into mature lamin A. Up to now, mutations in ZMPSTE24 have been linked to Restrictive Dermopathy (RD), Progeria or Mandibulo-Acral Dysplasia (MAD). We report here the phenotype of a patient referred for severe metabolic syndrome and cardiomyopathy, carrying a mutation in ZMPSTE24. The patient presented with a partial lipodystrophic syndrome associating hypertriglyceridemia, early onset type 2 diabetes, and android obesity with truncal and abdominal fat accumulation but without subcutaneous lipoatrophy. Other clinical features included acanthosis nigricans, liver steatosis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and high myocardial and hepatic triglycerides content. Mutated fibroblasts from the patient showed increased nuclear shape abnormalities and premature senescence as demonstrated by a decreased Population Doubling Level, an increased beta-galactosidase activity and a decreased BrdU incorporation rate. Reduced prelamin A expression by siRNA targeted toward LMNA transcripts resulted in decreased nuclear anomalies. We show here that a central obesity without subcutaneous lipoatrophy is associated with a laminopathy due to a heterozygous missense mutation in ZMPSTE24. Given the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and android obesity in the general population, and in the absence of familial study, the causative link between mutation and phenotype cannot be formally established. Nevertheless, altered lamina architecture observed in mutated fibroblasts are responsible for premature cellular senescence and could contribute to the phenotype observed in this patient. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Src1 is a Protein of the Inner Nuclear Membrane Interacting with the Dictyostelium Lamin NE81
Cells 2016, 5(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells5010013 - 18 Mar 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
The nuclear envelope (NE) consists of the outer and inner nuclear membrane (INM), whereby the latter is bound to the nuclear lamina. Src1 is a Dictyostelium homologue of the helix-extension-helix family of proteins, which also includes the human lamin-binding protein MAN1. Both endogenous [...] Read more.
The nuclear envelope (NE) consists of the outer and inner nuclear membrane (INM), whereby the latter is bound to the nuclear lamina. Src1 is a Dictyostelium homologue of the helix-extension-helix family of proteins, which also includes the human lamin-binding protein MAN1. Both endogenous Src1 and GFP-Src1 are localized to the NE during the entire cell cycle. Immuno-electron microscopy and light microscopy after differential detergent treatment indicated that Src1 resides in the INM. FRAP experiments with GFP-Src1 cells suggested that at least a fraction of the protein could be stably engaged in forming the nuclear lamina together with the Dictyostelium lamin NE81. Both a BioID proximity assay and mis-localization of soluble, truncated mRFP-Src1 at cytosolic clusters consisting of an intentionally mis-localized mutant of GFP-NE81 confirmed an interaction of Src1 and NE81. Expression GFP-Src11–646, a fragment C-terminally truncated after the first transmembrane domain, disrupted interaction of nuclear membranes with the nuclear lamina, as cells formed protrusions of the NE that were dependent on cytoskeletal pulling forces. Protrusions were dependent on intact microtubules but not actin filaments. Our results indicate that Src1 is required for integrity of the NE and highlight Dictyostelium as a promising model for the evolution of nuclear architecture. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Matefin/SUN-1 Phosphorylation on Serine 43 Is Mediated by CDK-1 and Required for Its Localization to Centrosomes and Normal Mitosis in C. elegans Embryos
Cells 2016, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells5010008 - 24 Feb 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
Matefin/SUN-1 is an evolutionary conserved C. elegans inner nuclear membrane SUN-domain protein. By creating a bridge with the KASH-domain protein ZYG-12, it connects the nucleus to cytoplasmic filaments and organelles. Matefin/SUN-1 is expressed in the germline where it undergoes specific phosphorylation at its [...] Read more.
Matefin/SUN-1 is an evolutionary conserved C. elegans inner nuclear membrane SUN-domain protein. By creating a bridge with the KASH-domain protein ZYG-12, it connects the nucleus to cytoplasmic filaments and organelles. Matefin/SUN-1 is expressed in the germline where it undergoes specific phosphorylation at its N-terminal domain, which is required for germline development and homologous chromosome pairing. The maternally deposited matefin/SUN-1 is then essential for embryonic development. Here, we show that in embryos, serine 43 of matefin/SUN-1 (S43) is phosphorylated in a CDK-1 dependent manner and is localized throughout the cell cycle mostly to centrosomes. By generating animals expressing phosphodead S43A and phosphomimetic S43E mutations, we show that phosphorylation of S43 is required to maintain centrosome integrity and function, as well as for the localization of ZYG-12 and lamin. Expression of S43E in early embryos also leads to an increase in chromatin structural changes, decreased progeny and to almost complete embryonic lethality. Down regulation of emerin further increases the occurrence of chromatin organization abnormalities, indicating possible collaborative roles for these proteins that is regulated by S43 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results support a role for phosphorylation of serine 43 in matefin/SUN-1 in mitosis. Full article
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