Special Issue "Carbon-Based Nanostructured Films"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanocomposite Thin Films and 2D Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Andrea Li Bassi
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano, Italy
Interests: growth of thin films and low-dimensional materials; optical and electronic properties of nanostructured oxides; nanomaterials for photoconversion and plasmonics; carbon nanostructures; vibrational spectroscopies; Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Carlo S. Casari
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano, Italy
Interests: nanostructured material growth; carbon nanostructures; structure, vibrational and electronic properties; nanostructured materials for energy applications
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbon-based nanostructured films are being widely investigated for a range of possible applications in different fields, from energy, sensing, optoelectronics and nanomedicine to mechanical, structural and protective coatings, nuclear, plasma and high energy particle physics. Carbon is unique in its capability to form different structures and morphologies from the nano to the microscale, as well as to display a large specific surface, high mechanical strength and electrical or thermal conductivity. Besides graphitic and diamond-like carbon (DLC), carbon nanostructures such as fullerene, nanotubes and graphene represent an additional possibility to engineer the functional properties. The design of films, coatings and composites for targeted applications requires the control and understanding of structure–property relationships in all the development steps starting from the fabrication process and the characterization of the functional properties, to performance testing.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials aims at presenting cutting-edge research on the synthesis, investigation and application of nanostructured carbon-based films. Topics cover physical deposition methods (e.g. PVD, PLD) and chemical synthesis (e.g. CVD) for the fabrication of novel carbon-based materials as well as novel approaches. The Special Issue will report advanced studies on all types of films and nanocomposites including those assembled from or containing carbon-based nanostructures of different dimensionalities (e.g. fullerenes, nanotubes, graphene, nanohorns) and hybridization (sp3, sp2 and sp).

Prof. Dr. Andrea Li Bassi
Prof. Dr. Carlo S. Casari
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.ynsqex.icu by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Amorphous carbon and diamond-like carbon (DLC)
  • Graphene based films and coatings
  • Films and materials assembled from carbon-based nanostructures (clusters, fullerenes, nanotubes, nanohorns, graphene)
  • Carbon based nanocomposites
  • Mechanical, electronic and optical properties
  • Surface science studies and in situ investigations

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
An Analytical Multiple-Temperature Model for Flash Laser Irradiation on Single-Layer Graphene
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071319 - 05 Jul 2020
Abstract
A Multiple-Temperature Model is proposed to describe the flash laser irradiation of a single layer of graphene. Zhukovsky’s mathematical approach is applied to solve the Fourier heat equations based upon quantum concepts, including heat operators. Easy solutions were inferred with respect to classical [...] Read more.
A Multiple-Temperature Model is proposed to describe the flash laser irradiation of a single layer of graphene. Zhukovsky’s mathematical approach is applied to solve the Fourier heat equations based upon quantum concepts, including heat operators. Easy solutions were inferred with respect to classical mathematics. Thus, simple equations were set for the electrons and phonon temperatures in the case of flash laser treatment of a single layer of graphene. Our method avoids the difficulties and extensive time-consuming nonequilibrium green function method or quantum field theories when applied in a condensed matter. Simple expressions were deduced that could prove useful for researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanostructured Films)
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Open AccessArticle
Probing the Nanostructure of Neutron-Irradiated Diamond Using Raman Spectroscopy
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061166 - 15 Jun 2020
Abstract
Disordering of crystal lattice induced by irradiation with fast neutrons and other high-energy particles is used for the deep modification of electrical and optical properties of diamonds via significant nanoscale restructuring and defects engineering. Raman spectroscopy was employed to investigate the nature of [...] Read more.
Disordering of crystal lattice induced by irradiation with fast neutrons and other high-energy particles is used for the deep modification of electrical and optical properties of diamonds via significant nanoscale restructuring and defects engineering. Raman spectroscopy was employed to investigate the nature of radiation damage below the critical graphitization level created when chemical vapor deposition and natural diamonds are irradiated by fast neutrons with fluencies from 1 × 1018 to 3 × 1020 cm−2 and annealed at the 100–1700 °C range. The significant changes in the diamond Raman spectra versus the neutron-irradiated conditions are associated with the formation of intrinsic irradiation-induced defects that do not completely destroy the crystalline feature but decrease the phonon coherence length as the neutron dose increases. It was shown that the Raman spectrum of radiation-damaged diamonds is determined by the phonon confinement effect and that the boson peak is present in the Raman spectra up to annealing at 800–1000 °C. Three groups of defect-induced bands (first group = 260, 495, and 730 cm−1; second group = 230, 500, 530, 685, and 760 cm–1; and third group = 335, 1390, 1415, and 1740 cm−1) were observed in Raman spectra of fast-neutron-irradiated diamonds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanostructured Films)
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Open AccessArticle
Mode II Interfacial Fracture Toughness of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Nanocomposite Film on Aluminum Substrate
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050904 - 08 May 2020
Abstract
In this investigation, various loadings of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) ranging from 0.3–1.0 wt % were incorporated into the epoxy to fabricate the nanocomposites. Nanocomposite film with a thickness of 0.2 mm was deposited on an aluminum substrate through a hot-pressing process. Theoretical [...] Read more.
In this investigation, various loadings of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) ranging from 0.3–1.0 wt % were incorporated into the epoxy to fabricate the nanocomposites. Nanocomposite film with a thickness of 0.2 mm was deposited on an aluminum substrate through a hot-pressing process. Theoretical expression of the model II strain energy release rate for the film/substrate composite structure was derived. End-notched flexure (ENF) tests were performed to characterize the mode II fracture energy of the composite structure. Experimental results indicate that the elastic modulus, ultimate strength, and mode II fracture energy increase as the MWCNT loading in the nanocomposite increases. In the case of nanocomposite film with 1.0 wt % of MWCNTs, the elastic modulus, ultimate strength, and mode II interfacial fracture toughness are increased by 20.6%, 21.1%, and 54.4%, respectively in comparison with neat epoxy. In addition, the dispersion of MWCNTs in the epoxy-based matrix was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM images depict that MWCNTs are well dispersed leading to the enhancement of the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanostructured Films)
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Open AccessArticle
Functionalized Cellulose for the Controlled Synthesis of Novel Carbon–Ti Nanocomposites: Physicochemical and Photocatalytic Properties
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040729 - 11 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Carbon–Ti nanocomposites were prepared by a controlled two-step method using microcrystalline cellulose as a raw material. The synthesis procedure involves the solubilization of cellulose by an acid treatment (H3PO4 or HNO3) and the impregnation with the Ti precursor [...] Read more.
Carbon–Ti nanocomposites were prepared by a controlled two-step method using microcrystalline cellulose as a raw material. The synthesis procedure involves the solubilization of cellulose by an acid treatment (H3PO4 or HNO3) and the impregnation with the Ti precursor followed of a carbonization step at 500 or 800 °C. The type of acid treatment leads to a different functionalization of cellulose with phosphorus- or oxygen-containing surface groups, which are able to control the load, dispersion and crystalline phase of Ti during the composite preparation. Thus, phosphorus functionalities lead to amorphous carbon–Ti composites at 500 °C, while TiP2O7 crystals are formed when prepared at 800 °C. On the contrary, oxygenated groups induce the formation of TiO2 rutile at an unusually low temperature (500 °C), while an increase of carbonization temperature promotes a progressive crystal growth. The removal of Orange G (OG) azo dye in aqueous solution, as target pollutant, was used to determine the adsorptive and photocatalytic efficiencies, with all composites being more active than the benchmark TiO2 material (Degussa P25). Carbon–Ti nanocomposites with a developed micro-mesoporosity, reduced band gap and TiO2 rutile phase were the most active in the photodegradation of OG under ultraviolet irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanostructured Films)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Review of the Effect of a Nanostructured Thin Film Formed by Titanium Carbide and Titanium Oxides Clustered around Carbon in Graphitic Form on Osseointegration
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061233 - 24 Jun 2020
Abstract
Improving the biocompatibility of implants is an extremely important step towards improving their quality. In this review, we recount the technological and biological process for coating implants with thin films enriched in titanium carbide (TiC), which provide improved cell growth and osseointegration. At [...] Read more.
Improving the biocompatibility of implants is an extremely important step towards improving their quality. In this review, we recount the technological and biological process for coating implants with thin films enriched in titanium carbide (TiC), which provide improved cell growth and osseointegration. At first, we discuss the use of a Pulsed Laser Ablation Deposition, which produced films with a good biocompatibility, cellular stimulation and osseointegration. We then describe how Ion Plating Plasma Assisted technology could be used to produce a nanostructured layer composed by graphitic carbon, whose biocompatibility is enhanced by titanium oxides and titanium carbide. In both cases, the nanostructured coating was compact and strongly bound to the bulk titanium, thus particularly useful to protect implants from the harsh oxidizing environment of biological tissues. The morphology and chemistry of the nanostructured coating were particularly desirable for osteoblasts, resulting in improved proliferation and differentiation. The cellular adhesion to the TiC-coated substrates was much stronger than to uncoated surfaces, and the number of philopodia and lamellipodia developed by the cells grown on the TiC-coated samples was higher. Finally, tests performed on rabbits confirmed in vivo that the osseointegration process of the TiC-coated implants is more efficient than that of uncoated titanium implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanostructured Films)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Dual amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from nanographene films
Authors: Rafael Muñoz-Mármol 1, Victor Bonal 1, Giuseppe M. Paternò 2, Aaron M. Ross 3, Pedro G. Boj 4, José M. Villalvilla 1, José A. Quintana 4, Francesco Scotognella 2,3, Cosimo D’Andrea 2,3, Samim Sardar 2, Guglielmo Lanzani 2,3,*, Yanwei Gu 5, Jishan Wu 5,* and María A. Díaz-García 1,*
Affiliation: 1 Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante 03080, Spain.
2 Center for Nano Science and Technology, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via G. Pascoli 70/3, Milano, Italy.
3 Physics Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy.
4 Departamento de Óptica, Farmacología y Anatomía and Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante 03080, Spain.
5 Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543, Singapore.
Abstract: Upcoming soon~

Type of Paper: Article
Title: Probing the Nanostructure of Neutron-irradiated Diamond using Raman Spectroscopy
Authors: Andrey A. Khomich,1; Roman A. Khmelnitsky,1,2; Alexander V. Khomich,1
Affiliations:
1. Kotelnikov Institute of Radio-Engineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pl. Vvedenskogo 1, 141190 Fryazino, Moscow Region, Russia
2. Lebedev Institute of Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 53, 117924 Moscow, Russia
Abstract: Disordering of crystal lattice induced by irradiation with fast neutrons and other high-energy particles is used for deep modification of electrical and optical properties of diamond via significant nanoscale restructuring and defects engineering. Raman spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the nature of radiation damage below the critical graphitization level created when CVD and natural diamonds are irradiated by fast neutrons with fluencies from 1×1018 to 3×1020 cm-2 and annealed at 100-1700 °C range. The significant changes in the diamond Raman spectra versus the neutron‐irradiated conditions are associated with the formation of intrinsic irradiation‐induced defects that do not completely destroy the crystalline feature but decrease the phonon coherence length as the neutron dose increases. It was shown that the Raman spectrum of radiation-damaged diamonds is determined by the phonon confinement effect and that boson peak is present in the Raman spectra up to annealing at 800-1000 °C. Three groups of defect-induced bands (260, 495 and 730 cm– 1), (230, 500, 530, 685, and 760 cm–1) and (335, 1390, 1415 and 1740 cm–1) were observed in Raman spectra of fast neutron irradiated diamonds.

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