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Open AccessArticle
Accumulation Conditions and an Analysis of the Origins of Natural Gas in the Lower Silurian Shiniulan Formation from Well Anye 1, Northern Guizhou Province
Energies 2019, 12(21), 4087; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12214087 (registering DOI) - 26 Oct 2019
Abstract
The origin of natural gas and the mechanisms that lead to gas accumulation in the marine calcareous mudstone of the Lower Silurian Shiniulan Formation in northern Guizhou province are special and complicated. According to a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, including the [...] Read more.
The origin of natural gas and the mechanisms that lead to gas accumulation in the marine calcareous mudstone of the Lower Silurian Shiniulan Formation in northern Guizhou province are special and complicated. According to a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, including the reconstruction of hydrocarbon generative potential and gas content’s measurement, in the context of some geochemistry information—the origins of the natural gas of Shiniulan Formation is suggested to be mixed gas. Furthermore, the accumulation of the natural gas can be proposed combined with some geological information. Results indicated that the volume of the in-place gas content of Shiniulan samples, reinstated by the formulas’ computation, reaches a yield of 3.67 m3·t−1 in rock. The theoretical gas content for Shiniulan Formation mudstone ranges from 1.6 to 5.8 m3·t−1 using the indirect calculation of gas content, and the total gas contents of those samples range from 0.065 to 0.841 m3/t, according to the United States Bureau of Mines’ (USBM) direct method. According to the combination of the reconstructed in-place gas content and the gas content, even mudstone in the Shiniulan Formation has potential to generating gas but could not satisfy the actual gas content in Shiniulan Formation. In addition, according to the composition, the carbon and hydrogen isotope charts of gaseous hydrocarbons further indicate that the gas origin of Shiniulan Formation is a mixed gas, which also means that the gas is not just generated in the layer, but has partly migrated from other formations, such as the Wufeng–Longmaxi Formation. The lower Shiniulan Formation in the study area is characterized by frequent interbed of limestone and calcareous mudstone. The geological information shows that well-developed fractures of mudstone and faults can be used as main pathways for the upward migration of gases from the underlying strata to the Shiniulan Formation. The limestone with fairly low porosity and permeability hinders the migration of natural gas as much as possible and keeps that efficiently reserved in the horizontal fractures of calcareous mudstone. This migration pattern implies that the interbedded rock association is also favorable for gas accumulation in the Shiniulan Formation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Integrated and Participatory Design of Sustainable Development Strategies on Multiple Governance Levels
Sustainability 2019, 11(21), 5931; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11215931 (registering DOI) - 26 Oct 2019
Abstract
An increasing number of sustainable development strategies (SDS) is being developed for cities, municipalities and countries. The design of such strategies is inherently complex. This is a result from intricate relationships between different SDS on different levels, and a large number of requirements [...] Read more.
An increasing number of sustainable development strategies (SDS) is being developed for cities, municipalities and countries. The design of such strategies is inherently complex. This is a result from intricate relationships between different SDS on different levels, and a large number of requirements that need to be addressed in strategy implementation. A particular challenge is the integration of strategies across different governance levels (e.g., city, federal, and national levels). Methodologies are currently lacking to systematically design SDS which take the full complexity of the dependencies of the strategies into account. In this article, we propose a participatory requirements analyses approach to support strategy building across governance levels. Experience from systems engineering (SE) has shown, that requirements are the basis for designing systems or strategies. We elicit requirements by applying a participatory modeling approach with causal-loop diagrams in an individual interview setting. To illustrate our approach, we test the developed design approach and focus on the interdependencies between SDS at the city level (i.e., the cities of Berlin and Hamburg) and the German national SDS. The design process reveals critical factors which are needed for the overall success of the strategies. The resulting causal models reveal that despite coordination activities of the regional objectives with the national targets, trade-offs exist between the strategies regarding the underlying conditions for their implementation (e.g., national law, federal and state law). In addition, the level of detail of requirements for certain objectives at the national level and across sectors is too general. This hinders the emergence of system-wide co-benefits of possible solution strategies. Requirements analysis can highlight interdependencies, such as trade-offs and synergies, between strategies at multiple governance levels and, based upon this, can support a more coherent strategy design. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Salience Models: A Computational Cognitive Neuroscience Review
Vision 2019, 3(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040056 (registering DOI) - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
The seminal model by Laurent Itti and Cristoph Koch demonstrated that we can compute the entire flow of visual processing from input to resulting fixations. Despite many replications and follow-ups, few have matched the impact of the original model—so what made this model [...] Read more.
The seminal model by Laurent Itti and Cristoph Koch demonstrated that we can compute the entire flow of visual processing from input to resulting fixations. Despite many replications and follow-ups, few have matched the impact of the original model—so what made this model so groundbreaking? We have selected five key contributions that distinguish the original salience model by Itti and Koch; namely, its contribution to our theoretical, neural, and computational understanding of visual processing, as well as the spatial and temporal predictions for fixation distributions. During the last 20 years, advances in the field have brought up various techniques and approaches to salience modelling, many of which tried to improve or add to the initial Itti and Koch model. One of the most recent trends has been to adopt the computational power of deep learning neural networks; however, this has also shifted their primary focus to spatial classification. We present a review of recent approaches to modelling salience, starting from direct variations of the Itti and Koch salience model to sophisticated deep-learning architectures, and discuss the models from the point of view of their contribution to computational cognitive neuroscience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Movements and Visual Cognition)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effect of All-Terrain Vehicle Crash Location on Emergency Medical Services Time Intervals
Safety 2019, 5(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5040073 (registering DOI) - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
Over 100,000 all-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related injuries are evaluated in U.S. emergency departments each year. In this study, we analyzed the time intervals for emergency medical services (EMS) providers responding to ATV crashes in different location types. Data from the Iowa State Trauma Registry [...] Read more.
Over 100,000 all-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related injuries are evaluated in U.S. emergency departments each year. In this study, we analyzed the time intervals for emergency medical services (EMS) providers responding to ATV crashes in different location types. Data from the Iowa State Trauma Registry and a statewide ATV crash/injury database was matched with Iowa EMS Registry records from 2004–2014. Ground ambulance responses to 270 ATV crashes were identified, and response characteristics and time intervals were analyzed. Off-road crashes had a longer median patient access interval (p < 0.001) and total on scene interval (p = 0.002) than roadway crashes. Crashes in remote locations had a longer median patient access interval (p < 0.001) and total on scene interval (p < 0.001), but also a longer median on scene with patient interval (p = 0.004) than crashes in accessible locations. Fifteen percent of remote patient access times were >6 min as compared to 3% of accessible crashes (p = 0.0004). There were no differences in en route to scene or en route to hospital time. Comparisons by location type showed no differences in injury severity score or number of total procedures performed. We concluded that responding EMS providers had an increased length of time to get to the patient after arriving on scene for off-road and remote ATV crashes relative to roadway and accessible location crashes, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
The Future of Hyperspectral Imaging
J. Imaging 2019, 5(11), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging5110084 - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
The Special Issue on hyperspectral imaging (HSI), entitled “The Future of Hyperspectral Imaging”, has published 12 papers. Nine papers are related to specific current research and three more are review contributions: In both cases, the request is to propose those methods or instruments [...] Read more.
The Special Issue on hyperspectral imaging (HSI), entitled “The Future of Hyperspectral Imaging”, has published 12 papers. Nine papers are related to specific current research and three more are review contributions: In both cases, the request is to propose those methods or instruments so as to show the future trends of HSI. Some contributions also update specific methodological or mathematical tools. In particular, the review papers address deep learning methods for HSI analysis, while HSI data compression is reviewed by using liquid crystals spectral multiplexing as well as DMD-based Raman spectroscopy. Specific topics explored by using data obtained by HSI include alert on the sprouting of potato tubers, the investigation on the stability of painting samples, the prediction of healing diabetic foot ulcers, and age determination of blood-stained fingerprints. Papers showing advances on more general topics include video approach for HSI dynamic scenes, localization of plant diseases, new methods for the lossless compression of HSI data, the fusing of multiple multiband images, and mixed modes of laser HSI imaging for sorting and quality controls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Hyperspectral Imaging)
Open AccessArticle
Knowledge and Expectations on Antibiotic Use among Older Adults in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Geriatrics 2019, 4(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics4040061 (registering DOI) - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
Antibiotics are commonly prescribed among older adults, and inappropriate use of antibiotics has been noted. However, there is limited information about their knowledge and expectations for antibiotics. This study aimed to assess older adults’ knowledge of antibiotic use and resistance, their expectations for [...] Read more.
Antibiotics are commonly prescribed among older adults, and inappropriate use of antibiotics has been noted. However, there is limited information about their knowledge and expectations for antibiotics. This study aimed to assess older adults’ knowledge of antibiotic use and resistance, their expectations for antibiotics and the relationship between knowledge, expectation and inappropriate practices related to antibiotic use. A cross-sectional survey involving respondents aged 60 years and above was conducted, using a validated questionnaire. A lack of knowledge about the role of antibiotics was observed, whereby more than half of the respondents incorrectly believed that antibiotics can treat viral infections (53.5%) and colds and coughs (53.7%). Also, 67.9% of respondents incorrectly believed that antibiotic resistance occurs when the body becomes resistant to antibiotics. Almost half of the respondents would expect antibiotics for symptoms of self-limiting viral infections. Respondents who answered correctly for the role of antibiotics in viral infections were more likely not to expect antibiotics for cold, flu and cough (p < 0.001). Respondents who answered correctly regarding the need to adhere to antibiotics were more likely to have completed their antibiotic course (p < 0.001). Future educational initiatives should provide key information on the role of antibiotics and the importance of complying with antibiotics in this population. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Direct and Inverse Fractional Abstract Cauchy Problems
Mathematics 2019, 7(11), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/math7111016 (registering DOI) - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
We are concerned with a fractional abstract Cauchy problem for possibly degenerate equations in Banach spaces. This form of degeneration may be strong and some convenient assumptions about the involved operators are required to handle the direct problem. Moreover, we succeeded in handling [...] Read more.
We are concerned with a fractional abstract Cauchy problem for possibly degenerate equations in Banach spaces. This form of degeneration may be strong and some convenient assumptions about the involved operators are required to handle the direct problem. Moreover, we succeeded in handling related inverse problems, extending the treatment given by Alfredo Lorenzi. Some basic assumptions on the involved operators are also introduced allowing application of the real interpolation theory of Lions and Peetre. Our abstract approach improves previous results given by Favini–Yagi by using more general real interpolation spaces with indices $θ$ , p, $p ∈ ( 0 , ∞ ]$ instead of the indices $θ$ , . As a possible application of the abstract theorems, some examples of partial differential equations are given. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Impact of Sinusoidal Surface Temperature on the Natural Convective Flow of a Ferrofluid along a Vertical Plate
Mathematics 2019, 7(11), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/math7111014 (registering DOI) - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
The spotlight of this investigation is primarily the effectiveness of the magnetic field on the natural convective for a Fe3O4 ferrofluid flow over a vertical radiate plate using streamwise sinusoidal variation in surface temperature. The energy equation is reduplicated by [...] Read more.
The spotlight of this investigation is primarily the effectiveness of the magnetic field on the natural convective for a Fe3O4 ferrofluid flow over a vertical radiate plate using streamwise sinusoidal variation in surface temperature. The energy equation is reduplicated by interpolating the non-linear radiation effectiveness. The original equations describing the ferrofluid motion and energy are converted into non-dimensional equations and solved numerically using a new hybrid linearization-differential quadrature method (HLDQM). HLDQM is a high order semi-analytical numerical method that results in analytical solutions in $η$ -direction, and so the solutions are valid overall in the $η$ domain, not only at grid points. The dimensionless velocity and temperature curves are elaborated. Furthermore, the engineering curiosity of the drag coefficient and local Nusselt number are debated and sketched in view of various emerging parameters. The analyzed numerical results display that applying the magnetic field to the ferroliquid generates a dragging force that diminishes the ferrofluid velocity, whereas it is found to boost the temperature curves. Furthermore, the drag coefficient sufficiently minifies, while an evolution in the heat transfer rate occurs as nanoparticle volume fraction builds. Additionally, the augmentation in temperature ratio parameter signifies a considerable growth in the drag coefficient and Nusselt number. The current theoretical investigation may be beneficial in manufacturing processes, development of transport of energy, and heat resources. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
When Is the Number of True Different Permutation Polynomials Equal to 0?
Mathematics 2019, 7(11), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/math7111018 (registering DOI) - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
In this paper, we have obtained the prime factorization form of positive integers N for which the number of true different fourth- and fifth-degree permutation polynomials (PPs) modulo N is equal to zero. We have also obtained the prime factorization form of N [...] Read more.
In this paper, we have obtained the prime factorization form of positive integers N for which the number of true different fourth- and fifth-degree permutation polynomials (PPs) modulo N is equal to zero. We have also obtained the prime factorization form of N so that the number of any degree PPs nonreducible at lower degree PPs, fulfilling Zhao and Fan (ZF) sufficient conditions, is equal to zero. Some conclusions are drawn comparing all fourth- and fifth-degree permutation polynomials with those fulfilling ZF sufficient conditions. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
On a Generalized Langevin Type Nonlocal Fractional Integral Multivalued Problem
Mathematics 2019, 7(11), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/math7111015 (registering DOI) - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
We establish sufficient criteria for the existence of solutions for a nonlinear generalized Langevin-type nonlocal fractional-order integral multivalued problem. The convex and non-convex cases for the multivalued map involved in the given problem are considered. Our results rely on Leray–Schauder nonlinear alternative for [...] Read more.
We establish sufficient criteria for the existence of solutions for a nonlinear generalized Langevin-type nonlocal fractional-order integral multivalued problem. The convex and non-convex cases for the multivalued map involved in the given problem are considered. Our results rely on Leray–Schauder nonlinear alternative for multivalued maps and Covitz and Nadler’s fixed point theorem. Illustrative examples for the main results are included. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Chemical, Enantioselective, and Sensory Analysis of a Cholinesterase Inhibitor Essential Oil from Coreopsis triloba S.F. Blake (Asteraceae)
Plants 2019, 8(11), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8110448 - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
The fresh leaves of Coreopsis triloba S.F. Blake, collected at Cerro Villonaco in Loja, Ecuador, were investigated with respect to their essential oil (EO). The chemical composition was determined qualitatively through gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantitatively by gas chromatography [...] Read more.
The fresh leaves of Coreopsis triloba S.F. Blake, collected at Cerro Villonaco in Loja, Ecuador, were investigated with respect to their essential oil (EO). The chemical composition was determined qualitatively through gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantitatively by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization (GC-FID), using relative response factors (RRF) based on the enthalpy of combustion. The essential oil contained between 92.5% and 93.4% of monoterpene hydrocarbons, with(E)-β-ocimene being the main component (35.2–35.9%), followed by β-phellandrene (24.6–25.0%), α-pinene (15.3–15.9%), myrcene (10.9–11.0%), sabinene (2.2–2.4%), (Z)-β-ocimene (1.5%), and germacrene D (1.2–1.3%). The enantiomeric distribution of α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, and germacrene D was also determined. The main components responsible for the aroma were identified through aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), a gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) based technique, being α-pinene, β-pinene (0.6%), terpinolene (0.1%), α-copaene (0.1–0.3%), β-phellandrene, and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (0.1–0.2%) the main olfactory constituents according to the decreasing factor of dilution (FD) order. The biological tests showed IC50 inhibition values of 42.2 and 6.8 µg/mL for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Filming and Protective Properties of a New Trehalose and Ceramides Based Ingredient
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040062 - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
The aim of this study is showing the filming and skin barrier protective properties of a new ingredient based on ceramides and trehalose and carried in lipophilic vesicles composed of lecithin and cholesterol (or phytosterols). Through an in vivo study, the restructuring and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is showing the filming and skin barrier protective properties of a new ingredient based on ceramides and trehalose and carried in lipophilic vesicles composed of lecithin and cholesterol (or phytosterols). Through an in vivo study, the restructuring and hydrating properties of this trehalose and ceramides compound have been evaluated. Furthermore, this new ingredient has been used in a topical formulation for atopic dermatitis, proving to be effective in the alterations of skin barrier. This evidence makes it an interesting ingredient for topical dermatological compositions in the treatment of dermatitis and all manifestations correlated to these skin disorders, such as edema, swelling, rash, redness, and itching. Its soothing and protective action against the painful and annoying symptoms like those given by dermatitis makes this trehalose and ceramides based ingredient for topical use. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Traditional and Modern Uses of Saffron (Crocus Sativus)
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040063 (registering DOI) - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
The Aromatic and Medicinal Plants sector has undergone a remarkable evolution, especially during the last decade. The global market is moving more and more towards products of natural origin. Indeed, of the 4200-existing plant in Morocco, 800 are listed as aromatic and medicinal [...] Read more.
The Aromatic and Medicinal Plants sector has undergone a remarkable evolution, especially during the last decade. The global market is moving more and more towards products of natural origin. Indeed, of the 4200-existing plant in Morocco, 800 are listed as aromatic and medicinal plants. Among these plants, saffron is a source of income for many areas of Morocco. Saffron, the dried stigma of the Crocus sativus flower, is considered among the main terroir products of Morocco. Saffron has accompanied all civilizations, whether for its culinary role, for its quality of dye or its ancestral virtues rooted in folk medicine. This review highlights the main components of saffron, and the pharmacological activities that result from it and make this product a serious therapeutic hope. Then, a classification of uses of saffron was carried out according to its uses, traditional, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfumery without forgetting its use a spice incorporated in many dishes around the world. Full article
Open AccessReview
Disease Associated Mutations in KIR Proteins Linked to Aberrant Inward Rectifier Channel Trafficking
Biomolecules 2019, 9(11), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9110650 (registering DOI) - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
The ubiquitously expressed family of inward rectifier potassium (KIR) channels, encoded by KCNJ genes, is primarily involved in cell excitability and potassium homeostasis. Channel mutations associate with a variety of severe human diseases and syndromes, affecting many organ systems including the [...] Read more.
The ubiquitously expressed family of inward rectifier potassium (KIR) channels, encoded by KCNJ genes, is primarily involved in cell excitability and potassium homeostasis. Channel mutations associate with a variety of severe human diseases and syndromes, affecting many organ systems including the central and peripheral neural system, heart, kidney, pancreas, and skeletal muscle. A number of mutations associate with altered ion channel expression at the plasma membrane, which might result from defective channel trafficking. Trafficking involves cellular processes that transport ion channels to and from their place of function. By alignment of all KIR channels, and depicting the trafficking associated mutations, three mutational hotspots were identified. One localized in the transmembrane-domain 1 and immediately adjacent sequences, one was found in the G-loop and Golgi-export domain, and the third one was detected at the immunoglobulin-like domain. Surprisingly, only few mutations were observed in experimentally determined Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)exit-, export-, or ER-retention motifs. Structural mapping of the trafficking defect causing mutations provided a 3D framework, which indicates that trafficking deficient mutations form clusters. These “mutation clusters” affect trafficking by different mechanisms, including protein stability. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Low-Temperature Vapor-Solid Growth of ZnO Nanowhiskers for Electron Field Emission
Coatings 2019, 9(11), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9110698 - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
One-dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures have aroused interest from scientists and engineers for electron field emission applications because of their experimentally accessible high aspect ratio in combination with their low work function. A comprehensive study of the vapor-solid growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowhiskers [...] Read more.
One-dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures have aroused interest from scientists and engineers for electron field emission applications because of their experimentally accessible high aspect ratio in combination with their low work function. A comprehensive study of the vapor-solid growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowhiskers by utilizing zinc acetylacetonate hydrate and oxygen at low temperature (580 °C) is reported herein. The nanowhiskers morphology was investigated by varying different growth parameters, such as temperature, substrate type and position, gas flow, precursor amount, and growth time. According to the obtained parameter dependences, the process was optimized to achieve homogenous crystalline nanowhiskers with high aspect ratios and clearly defined surface facets and tips. We show electron field emission measurements from tailor-made ZnO nanowhiskers grown on n-doped silicon, titanium thin films, and free-standing silicon nitride membranes, revealing field emission turn-on fields significantly lower compared to a perfect flat ZnO thin film. Especially the latter devices—ZnO nanowhiskers on a free-standing membrane—might pave the way into a novel nanomembrane detector unit in proteomics, which can significantly extend the mass range of current time-of-flight mass spectrometers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 1D, 2D and 3D ZnO: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications)
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